# Memory!

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• Created by: Jess-Jane
• Created on: 05-05-16 21:09
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
They created the multi-store model which was designed to explain how moemory works. the model proposes that memory is comprised of three stores and explains the processes involved in moving information between these stores.
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Sperling (1960)
He flashed a 3x4 grid of letters on the screen for 1/20 of a second, once the grid was gone he asked the participants to recall letters from one row as which was indicated by a sound. Recall of the letters in the indicated row was 75%.
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Miller (1956)
Miller stated that most people have a digit span of betwwen 5 and 9 digits. This later became know and "7+/-2".
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Peterson and Peterson (1959)
Participants had to recall triagrams. To prevent rehersal participants were asked to count backwards in three's from a specified random number until they saw a red light appear. They were asked to recall triagrams after intervals of 3,6,9,12,18 secs.
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Bahrick et al (1975)
He tested the memory of 392 graduates of a high school. Two tests- Recall: participants were shown pics of their classmates and asked them to name them. Recognition: they were given a list of names and the picture and asked to match them up.
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He showed participants a list of 6 consonants each of which was seen for
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He found a simular thing happens when coding information in the LTM. this time the meaning of words got confussed.
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Createdthe working memory model- this is an explanation of SHORT term memory only.
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Found we can do two diffrent things at once if they use diffrent components of the working memory model but not if they use the same components.
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The case of KF (1970)
KF was in a motorcycle accident which left him with a normally functioning LTM, but variable problems with his STM. His short term forgetting of sounds and words was much greater than that of visual stimuli.
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The case of EVR (1985)
He had good reasoning skills and a high IQ. However, his dicision making skills were very poor; for example, it took him hours to decide where too eat.
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The case of Clive Wearing
He caught a virus that damaged the central nervous system and the hippocampus. this means that his brain resets itself every 7 seconds. he still uses his procedual, sensory, semantic and short term memory but no longer has his episodic memory.
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Goodwin (1969)
Goodwin investigated the importance of state when remebering. When people encoded information when drunk, they were more likely to recall it in the same state.
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Baker et al (2004)
Found that participants were more likely to recall something if the were chewing gum when they learned it and when they recalled it.
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Marian and Fausey (1986)
Participants in the study where fluent in english and spanish. They listened to four stories ater they were questioned about each story and asked to answer in the same language as the question. Half the questions were the same language of the story.
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Elizabeth Loftus (1979)
"Weapons effect" Weapons is used, witnesses tend to focus attention on it and fail to notice other details, such as the criminals face. This is because a weapon causes ANXIETY.
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Loftus et al (1987)
Monitored eyewitnesses eye movements and found tht the presence of weapon causes attention to be physically drawn towards the weapon itself and away from other things such as a persons face.
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Christianson and Hubinette (1993)
carried out a natural experiment. they surveyed 110 people, who had witnessed 22 real bank robberies between them. some of these people had been onlookers who just happened to be in the bank at the time others were employees.
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Yuille and Cutshall (1986)
21 witnesses observed a shooting where 1 person was killed and the other seriously wounded. All witnesses were interviewed by the police, and 13 agreed to a research interview 4 months afer the event. they found they were the same.
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Loftus and Palmer (1974)
They showed participants a film of a road accident involving a number of cars. Participants were asked either: "about how fast were the cars going when they BUMPED" or "about how fast were the cars going when they SMASHED".
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

He flashed a 3x4 grid of letters on the screen for 1/20 of a second, once the grid was gone he asked the participants to recall letters from one row as which was indicated by a sound. Recall of the letters in the indicated row was 75%.

Sperling (1960)

### Card 3

#### Front

Miller stated that most people have a digit span of betwwen 5 and 9 digits. This later became know and "7+/-2".

### Card 4

#### Front

Participants had to recall triagrams. To prevent rehersal participants were asked to count backwards in three's from a specified random number until they saw a red light appear. They were asked to recall triagrams after intervals of 3,6,9,12,18 secs.

### Card 5

#### Front

He tested the memory of 392 graduates of a high school. Two tests- Recall: participants were shown pics of their classmates and asked them to name them. Recognition: they were given a list of names and the picture and asked to match them up.