Memory

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  • Created by: Magdalene
  • Created on: 29-04-16 09:30
What is coding?
The format which information is stored in the various memory stores
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What is capacity?
The amount of information that can be held in a memory store
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What is duration?
The length of time information can be held in memory
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What is the multi-store model?
Describes how information flows through a memory system
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What is the sensory register?
The memory stores for each of our fives senses
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What are the three types of long-term memory?
Episodic memory, semantic memory, and procedural memory
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What is episodic memory?
Memory of personal events
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What is semantic memory?
Memory for the own knowledge of the world, e.g. knowing facts and what concepts mean
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What is procedural memory?
Memory for our knowledge of how to do things
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What is the working memory model?
An explanation of how one aspect of short-term memory is organised and functions
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What is the role of the central executive?
Co-ordinates the activities of the three sub-systems of memory
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What is the role of the phonological loop?
Processes information in terms of sound. Is divided into two sections: the phonological store and the articulatory process
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What is the role of the visuo-sketchpad?
Stores visual/spatial information. Has two sections: visual cache (stores visual data) and the inner scribe (records the arrangement of objects in the visual field)
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What is the role of the episodic buffer?
Brings together material from the other subsystems into a single memory rather than separate strands
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What are the two types of forgetting?
Intrference and retreival failure
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What is interference?
Forgetting because one memory blocks another, causing memorys to be distorted or forgotten
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What are the two types of interference?
Proactive and Retroactive
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What is proactive interference?
When the old memories disrupt the recall of new ones
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What is retroactive interference?
When new memories disrupt the recall of old ones
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McGeoch and McDonald study on retroactive interference
Participants had to learn a list of words until they got 100% accuracy. They then learned a new list. There were 6 groups of participants and they had to learn a different type of list each (numbers, unfamiliar words, same meaning words etc)
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What did McGeoch and McDonald find in their study about retroactive interference?
The most similar material produced the worst recall. Shows that interference is strongest when the memories are similar
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What is retrieval failure?
When someone doesnt have the necessary cue to be able to access the memory
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Explain Godden and Baddeley and their study on context-dependent forgetting
They asked deep sea divers to learn/recall a list of words either on land or in the sea. There were four conditions (e.g. land-land, sea-land etc.) where some matched and some didnt
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What did Godden and Baddeley find in their study on context-dependent forgetting?
That memory was better when the participant recalled the list of words in the same place they learnt the words. Therefore there must have been memory cues /triggers in that environment
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Explain Carter and Cassaday and their study on state-dependent forgetting
Participants were given drugs to make them drousy. They then had to learn/recall a list of words either being on the drug or not. There were four conditions (drug-no drug, drug-drug etc.) where some matched and some didint
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What did Carter and Cassaday find i their study on state-dependent forgetting?
When cues are absent (you are drousy recalling but have been alert learning) then there is more forgetting
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What are the two factors affecting eyewitness testemony?
Anxiety and cognitive interview
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Why can anxiety have a negative effect on recall?
Anxiety creates physiological arousal in the body us prevents us paying attention to important cues
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Why can anxiety have a positive effet on recall?
The fight-or-flight response which increases iur alretness and improves our memory for an event because we become more aware of cues in the situatation
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What is a technique that can improve eye witness testimony?
Cognitive interview
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What is cognitive interview?
A method of interviewing eyewitnesses to help them to retrieve more accurate memories
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What are the four sections of cognitive interview?
Report everything, reinstate the context, reverse the order, and change perspective
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Explain Tulving and the encoding specific principle
He summarised the pattern of retreival failure and called it the encoding specificity principle. This states that if the cue is to help us store information it has to be presesnt at encoding
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Card 2

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What is capacity?

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The amount of information that can be held in a memory store

Card 3

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What is duration?

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Card 4

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What is the multi-store model?

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Card 5

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What is the sensory register?

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