Memory- PART 1

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  • Created by: Laelle
  • Created on: 18-04-16 18:43
What is memory?
The process by which we retrieve and recollect information about past events
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What are the 2 types of memory?
Short-term and long-term
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What is duration?
How long information lasts before it is no longer unavailable
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What is capacity?
How much information is held in memory
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What is coding?
The way information is processed and stored in memory
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What is the duration of STM?
Up to 30 seconds
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What did Peterson and Peterson find about the duration of STM?
At 3 sec interval, 90% remembered, at 18 sec interval 2% remembered
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Which study suggests the duration of LTM?
Bahrick's yearbook study
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What did Bahrick find?
After 48 years, 70% of names could still be paired with the correct photograph
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Duration of LTM?
Up to a lifetime
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What is the capacity of the STM?
7+/-2 items
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Who researched the capacity of STM and LTM?
Jacob- digit span (9.3 items on average) & Miller 7+/-2 (items)
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What is the capacity of the LTM?
Unlimited, as long as it's rehearsed
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What is the coding of STM?
Acoustic (sound)
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Coding of LTM?
Semantic (meaning)
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Baddeley found that STM and LTM are better with what?
Semantic/acoustic dissimilar words
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What is the multi-store model?
An explanation of how memory processes work
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What does the MSM suggest?
That memory is made of separate stores linked by processing
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What is detected you the sensory register?
Environmental stimuli
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To process to LTM, info from STM must be..?
Rehearsed
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How do you recall info from LTM?
Transfer it back to the STM: retrieval
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To process from sensory register to STM, info must be..?
Paid attention to
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What did Sperling's (1960) study aim to show?
That information decays rapidly in the sensory register
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What did the study involve?
Showing participants a grid of 12 digits + 50 milisecs each
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What were the results?
42% remembered 5 things, 75% remembered 3 things
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Why were the results so poor?
50 milisecs is a blink of an eye so they weren't able to pay attention
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Who studied the Serial position effect?
Glanzer + Cunitz (1966)
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What was the procedure?
Participants were shown 20 words, and asked to recall them immediately after
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What words were remebered?
The first and last words
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What words were not remembered as well as the others?
The words in the middle
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Why were the first words remembered?
Primacy effect- they were rehearsed and transferred into the LTM
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Why were the last words remembered?
Recency effect- they were still in the STM during recall
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What was HM's case study?
Had both sides of the hippocampus removed from his brain, in an operation to reduce epilpesy
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What did HM suffer as a result?
Brain damage
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What was still in tact?
His personality and intellect
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What couldn't HM do?
Form new long term memories
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What does this show?
That the hippocampus acts as a memory gateway that new memories must past before entering storage in the brain
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Research Against MSM?
KF's case study
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What did KF's study suggest?
That there may be more than 1 type of STM, so MSM is reductionist for treating it as 1 store
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What did the motorbike accident affect?
KF's STM- only his verbal information, visual memories were fine
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What did Tulving argue?
That the MSM's view of LTM was too simplistic + inflexible
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What did Tulving suggest?
That there were 3 types of Long-term memory?
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What are these?
Episodic, semantic + procedural memories
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What are episodic memories concerned with?
Personal memories about events, or a group of events, occurring as part of a larger sequence
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What are the 3 elements of episodic memories?
Specific details of the event, the context + emotion
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Example of epsiodic memories?
Your first day of school
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Why do semantic memories start off as episodic?
Because we acquire knowledge based on personal experiences
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What are semantic memories?
More about knowledge of the world (facts) that we all share
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Examples of semantic memories?
Functions of object, social customs, abstract concepts (such as maths)
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What are procedural memories concerned with?
Skills and actions- remembering how to do something
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How are procedural memories acquired?
Through repetition and practice
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Procedural skills can be described as what?
Automatic
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Why is it important that they are automatic?
So we can focus our attention on other tasks, while performing these everyday skills
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The performance of procedural skills is disrupted by?
Paying attention to the step-by-step procedure
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Example of procedural memories?
How to drive, swim, ride a bike
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What are declarative memories?
Memories that can be consciously recalled
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Which type of LTM's are declarative (explicit)?
Episodic + Semantic
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Why are procedural memories non-declarative?
They can't be consciously recalled
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What part of the brain are episodic memories associated with?
The hippocampus and other parts of the temporal lobe it is located in
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What part of the brain are semantic memories associated with?
The temporal lobe
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What part of the brain are procedural memories associated with?
The cerebellum
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How do brain scans support Tulvings proposal?
Different parts of the brain are shown on brain scans as active, when different kinds of LTM's are active
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Why is HM's case an oversimplification in supporting MSM?
He could form procedural memory but not E+S memories)
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Example of prodcedural memory HM had?
He learned to mirror draw
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What shows that he no longer had E + S memories?
He had no memory of he had learned to mirror draw
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So what does HM's case show?
That there are different types of LTM
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What happened to Clive Wearing?
He suffered from a severe case of amnesia, that resulted in a viral infection that damaged his brain
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Like HM, which type of LTM was still intact?
His procedural memories- He was a former professional musician and could still read music, sing and play the piano
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What shows that Clive Wearing had no E + S memories?
He had no memory of his musical education
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What does this show?
Not only are there different types of LTM, but they are stored in different parts of the brain; so 1 store can be damaged and the others unaffacted
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What is the WMM?
A model of the STM but in more detail than the MSM; it refers to the part of memory you use when working on something
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Who made the WMM?
Baddeley and Hitch
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What are the 4 components?
Central executive, phonological loop, episodic buffer + visuo-spatial sketchpad
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What is the central executive?
The key component that works out what the task is, what store is need, how much attention is directed + allocates resources
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What does the limited capacity of the central executive mean?
That it can't attend to many things at once
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What does the phonological loop deal with?
Auditory information
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What is it made up of?
The phonological store (inner ear) + articulatory process (inner voice)
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What does the phonological store do?
Deals with words you hear
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What is the articulatory store used for?
Rehearsing info from the phonological store
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What is the capacity + coding of the phonological loop?
Limited + acoustic
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What is the function of the visuo-spatial sketchpad?
Temporarily holds visual and spatial information
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What is visual info?
How objects look
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What is spatial info?
The relationship between objects
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What sort of task would the visuo-spatial sketchpad be used for?
Thinking about how many windows are in your house, or your route to school
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What does the episodic buffer act as?
A general temporary store for visual and acoustic information
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Why does it store acoustic and visual info?
Because the central executive has no storage capacity so its holds info
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What does the episodic buffer act as a bridge between?
Working memory and LTM
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What is the capacity of the episodic buffer?
Limited
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Why does the WMM lack validity?
The explanation says little about the central executive so the model doesn't completely explain STM
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What is the problem with the case studies that support the WMM?
You can't make comparisons about before and after brain damage- so does the brain damage actually cause changes in behaviour
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So what is it hard to establish?
Cause + effect
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How does KF's study support the WMM?
His verbal info was affected, but his visual memory was still in tact. This shows that there a different types of STM
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What did Bunge et al. use to show that the brain was more active during dual tasks?
fMRI scans
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Which component does this support?
The role of the central executive- in deciding how much attention is directed to a task
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Who also researched the effects of dual tasks?
Baddeley
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What did Baddeley find?
Participants doing a visual + verbal task found it less difficult as there was no competition in using the same component
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What are the 2 types of memory?

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Short-term and long-term

Card 3

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What is duration?

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Card 4

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What is capacity?

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Card 5

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What is coding?

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