Meeus and Raaijmakers

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What year was M & R's study?
1986
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What was the aims of M & R's study?
Wanted to replicate Milgram's study, treat certain ambiguities with the study
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Give an example of an ambiguity that was found with Milgram's study and how this was fixed
That the form of punishment (shocks) was old fashioned and lacked mundane realism, so they made the study based upon more modern psychological harm
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What was M & R's two variations?
Having a study with the experimenter absent and the study with two peer confederates present also participating
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How many people were there in M & R's main procedure?
Three as with Milgram's study
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Who were the pps administering the psychological harm to?
A "job applicant" who was in fact a trained accomplice
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What had the applicant to do to get the job?
Pass a test
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What had the pps got to do with this test?
Interrupt the applicant with stress remarks
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What were these remarks regarding?
The applicants performance and personality
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What were the pps told was a requirement for the job the "applicant" was applying for?
To be able to work under stress
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What were the pps told the aim of the study was?
To test the relationship between psychological stress and test achievement
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How did the applicant react to these remarks?
He objected to them
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What were the pps told to do about these objections?
Ignore them
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What happened to the number of objections as the study went on?
They increased
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Did the applicant fail or pass the test?
Failed
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What was experiment one?
The main study
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What was experiment two?
The experiment with variations of the study
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How many participants were there in experiment one?
Thirty nine
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Was there both males and females in this study?
Yes
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What was the age range of pps in this study?
18-55
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What was the education basis of the pps?
They were all at least of Dutch high school education
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Where did the study take place?
In a modern building in a Dutch university (Holland)
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What sampling method did the study use?
Self selected through a newspaper advertisement
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Were the pps paid and if so how much?
Yes they were, they were paid the equivalent of $13
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How many people were in the control group?
Fifteen
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How many people were in the experimental group?
Twenty four
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Describe the experimenter
A man of about 30, well dressed and friendly but stern
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How long did the experiment last?
Around 30 minutes
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Were the pps debriefed?
Yes
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How was the test that the applicant took administered?
Orally using the pps
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How did the applicant hear the test?
Through a speaker in a separate room
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Were the pps told that the interview was real?
Yes
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Were the pps told that the applicant knew about the study?
No, they were told that the applicant was unaware
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How many times did the pps have to give negative comments?
15 times
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How was tension measured in the applicant?
Through electrodes placed on their skull
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How did the pps know when to make the remarks?
They were told through a television monitor and sequence panel
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How was the stress of the applicant shown to the pps?
Through the monitor on a level of 15-65, also verbally e.g. "intense"
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What was the test like?
32 multiple choice questions
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How did M & R create a baseline measurement for experiment one?
By giving the first set of questions without any stress remarks being given
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How many sets of questions were there?
Four
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How many stress remarks were given per set?
Five
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How many errors did the applicant make?
Ten
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How many errors did you have to make to fail the test?
Eight
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Give an example of the applicant objecting
"But surely..." or "My answer wasn't wrong was it?"
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What had happened by the eighth and ninth stress remark?
The applicant had asked the pps to stop making the remarks, had stated that they had been lied to about the purpose of the study and had withdrawn their consent
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What hapened if the pps refused to continue?
The experimenter gave four verbal prods
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What were the control group able to do?
Give the negative remarks whenever they wanted
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What happened when the people in the control group stopped giving negative remarks?
The applicant stopped making errors and the tension level dropped
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What was the average number of stress remarks given?
14.81
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What percentage of the pps were obedient?
91.7%
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How many of the pps in the experimental group obeyed to the end?
22
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How many people in the control group made comments?
None
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Was here any opposition from the pps in the experimental group?
No
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How man pps had a discussion with the experimenter?
Nearly all of them but continued when ordered to do so
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What did the follow up questionaires show?
That the pps were unhappy with the experiment
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What percentage of pps believed the experiment was real?
73%
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Who did the pps blame?
45% blamed the experimenter, 22% blamed the applicant and 33% thought that they were to blame
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What was the percentage obedience when the experimenter was absent in Milgram's study?
22.5%
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What was the percentage obedience when two peers rebelled in Milgram's study?
10%
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How many pps were there in experiment 2?
41
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How many pps were there in the "experimenter absent" condition?
22
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How many pps were there in the "two peers rebel" condition?
19
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What did "experimenter absent" mean?
The experimenter ordered the stress remarks to be given and then left the room
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What did the "two peers rebel" mean?
The pps were put into a group with two people who they thought were also other pps but were confederates. After stress remark 8 both confederates started to protest. At stress remark 10 they both ignored the experimenter's prods.
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What was the pps told to do without the two other pps?
Continue without them
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What did a Chi-Squared test of M & R's study find?
That their results were significant
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What percentage of the pps obeyed in the experimenter absent condition?
36.4%
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What was the percentage of pps obeying in the two rebellious peers condition?
15.8%
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What happened to obedience as variations were introduced?
It dropped
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Who had higher levels of obedience overall- Milgram or M & R?
M & R
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What is easier to create- psychological or physical harm?
Psychological
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What can't the pps do when the experimenter is out of the room?
Defer responsibility
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How many pps stop at the same time as the other two confederates?
Nine out of nineteen
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Why did the pps feal okay with administering psychological harm?
Because they are distanced from it, psychological harm creates an immediate response
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Why were the findings of M&R useful?
Because we can compare them to Milgram as they built on his faults
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Is the study replicable?
Yes
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What is wrong with the task?
It lacks mundane realism
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What was wrong with the environment?
It was in a laboratory and so lacked ecological validity
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Is the study ethical?
No pps may have been caused guilt and thus psychological harm
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Had the pps agreed to administer harm?
Yes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was the aims of M & R's study?

Back

Wanted to replicate Milgram's study, treat certain ambiguities with the study

Card 3

Front

Give an example of an ambiguity that was found with Milgram's study and how this was fixed

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was M & R's two variations?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many people were there in M & R's main procedure?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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