Medicine Through Time (individuals)

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Hippocrates
Author of Hippocratic Collection (medical texts), created the 'Hippocratic Oath' and came up with the 'Four Humours' theory.
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Galen
Developed the ‘Theory of the Opposites’ from Four Humours and demonstrated the brain controlled the body not the heart.
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Avicenna
An Arab doctor (aka Ibn Sinna) who wrote a million-word textbook covering all aspects of medicine.
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Andreas Vesalius
He used artists drawing of dissections and published them in ‘Fabric of Human Body’. His work was widely circulated due to the invention of printing and he challenged the ideas of Galen, e.g. over human jaw bone.
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Ambroise Pare
A military surgeon who treated wounds using turpentine and conducted amputations using ligatures.
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William Harvey
Developed theory of circulation of blood and challenged Galen’s ideas on blood.
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Paracelsus
Disagreed with Galen over Four Humours and thought that disease attacks the body from the outside. He devised mineral remedies to help cure disease, e.g. mercury and arsenic.
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Edward Jenner
Developed the first vaccine for smallpox using cowpox and he faced much opposition to his ideas, e.g. from Royal Society although Parliament granted him £30,000 to set up a vaccination clinic in London.
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Louis Pasteur
Author of ‘Germ Theory’, challenging the theory of ‘spontaneous generation’ and miasma. He used new technology, e.g. Lister’s telescope helped him make his discoveries.
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Robert Koch
Used teams of bacteriologists to identify the bacteria causing different diseases and he identified different bacteria using stains and cultivating them on Petri dishes. He made the first discovery of the bacterium that causes a human disease-TB.
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Ignaz Semmelweiss
Insisted that doctors washed their hands after dissections to reduce cross-contamination with patients.
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Joseph Lister
Influenced by Pasteur’s ‘Germ Theory’ and developed the carbolic spray which was unpopular with doctors due to unpleasant side-effects.
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John Snow
In 1854 he made the connection between outbreaks of cholera and infected water supply. He based his work on meticulous studies of Broad Street in London and conducted house-to-house interviews and recorded findings on a map.
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Alexander Fleming
He rediscovered the properties of the bacteria penicillin by chance in his laboratory at St Mary’s London in 1928 and he used penicillin to attack staphylococcus, a major cause of blood infections. Lacked the facilities to develop large quanitities.
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William Beveridge
He was the author of the ‘Beveridge Report’ in 1942 and he proposed a free national health service (NHS) which was eventually introduced in 1948.
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Christian Barnard
Pioneered the use of heart transplants in twentieth century and used teams of surgeons and doctors sharing their expertise. New retroviral drugs were used to ensure organs were not rejected by the body.
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Florey and Chain
They developed the use of penicillin after reading Fleming's discovery. They got financial help from the American Government and the mass production of penicillin began.
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Watson and Crick
They discovered the structure of DNA and how it passed on from parents to children.
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Paul Ehrlich
He developed the first magic bullet Salvarsan 606 which killed the harmful bacteria that caused syphilis.
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Gerhard Domagk
He developed Prontisil, the second magic bullet, to cure food poisoning.
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Edwin Chadwick
Wrote a report on the 'Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population' in 1942. He advised the government to improve sewers and to provide clean drinking water.
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Joseph Bazalgette
Cholera outbreaks. He came up with the idea to remove the sewage from London by building new sewers which lead to the sea. The government rejected his ideas until the Great Stink (summer 1858)-MPs fled London and used lime to avoid miasma.
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Card 2

Front

Developed the ‘Theory of the Opposites’ from Four Humours and demonstrated the brain controlled the body not the heart.

Back

Galen

Card 3

Front

An Arab doctor (aka Ibn Sinna) who wrote a million-word textbook covering all aspects of medicine.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

He used artists drawing of dissections and published them in ‘Fabric of Human Body’. His work was widely circulated due to the invention of printing and he challenged the ideas of Galen, e.g. over human jaw bone.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A military surgeon who treated wounds using turpentine and conducted amputations using ligatures.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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