Medicine through time

These are all of the Flashcards to help you revise for the Mock exam and hopefully for the real exam too.

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What is a Prehistoric society?
A society which has not developed writing.
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What was prehistoric Public Health like?
The societies moved around a lot (nomadic) which means that waste did not build up around where they lived.
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What did Prehistoric societies think caused illness?
A lot of understanding was dominated by spirits.
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What surgical knowledge did Prehistoric societies have?
They could set bones, they could open up the skull using flint and the patient could survive.
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Who gave healthcare to people needing it in Prehistoric times?
The shaman was the spiritual leader of a tribe and would give most healthcare to people. Spiritual and Herbal treatments were common.
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What was the main most significant treatment of prehistoric society?
Trepanning.
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What was Trephination/trepanning?
Cutting a hole in the skull to let bad spirits out of the head. Some medical value in a few rare cases. Done for spiritual, not pratical, reasons.
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What were the main contributions of Egypt?
Channel Theory; Mummification; Hieroglyphics.
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What was Channel Theory?
Illness was caused by blocked channels. This theory came from the poor harvests being the result of the Nile being blocked. Unblocking it through bleeding (purging) was a cure.
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Why could you argue that Channel Theory was important?
It was the first medical theory that was not based on Gods or the supernatural for cures. It was patient-cenred in it's cause and cure for illness.
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How did religion help develop egyptian medicine?
Mummification was done for religious reasons. They took out the soft organs out of the body to preserve the body for the afterlife.
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How did religion hinder egyptian medicine?
Due to beliefs of the body being needed in the afterlife, dissection was forbidden.
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What was Egyptian Public health like?
They encouraged cleanliness due to religious reasons. They had eye make-up to protect eyes and mosquito nets to protect them as they slept.
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Why were Hieroglyphics important?
This allowed the ideas of mummification, Gods and channel teory to be passed on to future generations and maybe developed.
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What was Egyptian surgery like?
They could deal with dislocations and mend broken bones. Surgical tools improved as they were made from bronze.
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How did doctors treat egyptians?
They believed Gods effected the body so used supernatural and practical cures. They were the first to have doctors which was good, but they also prayed which was bad.
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What were Hippocrates four contributions to medicine?
Hippocratic Corpus; Hippocratic Oath; Theory of the four humours and Clinical Observation.
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What was the Hippocratic Corpus?
A collection of 70 books written by Hippocrates and others with all the medical knowledge at the time.
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What was Clinical Observation?
It put the patient at the centre trying to decide what was wrong. It encouraged looking at symptoms, diagnosing the illness, treating and observing the patient.
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What was the theory of the four humours?
They thought this was a cause of illness. The humours need to be in balance, if they are unbalanced, the patient becomes ill. The humours were blood, black bile, yellow bile and phlegm.
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What was the Hippocratic Oath?
A pledge or promise made by doctors to provide the best medical care that they can including doctor/patient confidentiality. It is still used today.
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Who was Ascelpius?
The greek god of healing. People went to Asclepions to give him sacrifices in return for good health.
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What happened in an Ascelpion?
Both natural and supernatural treatments. People would pray, give sacrifices and sleep outside and the priests would treat them with some herbal remedies.
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What was a votive?
When someone was healed by Asclepius, the patient would make a replica of the body part healed and take it to the Asclepion as a sign of thanks.
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Why was Hippocrates able to come up with new ideas?
They had a new attitude. They questioned knowledge thanks to philosophers of the time like Aristotle.
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What did Greek society know about surgery and anatomy?
Greeks were often at war and learnt how to set ones and fix disloctions. No surgery went inside the body.
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What aspects of Public Health did Greece have?
Did wash themselves; did have healthy diets(4 humours taught moderation/balance in all things); Did exercise(Olmpics); No running water; No sewers.
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Who was the individual genius in the roman times?
Cladius Galen.
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What did Galen discover?
That the brain controls the body, not the heart.
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How did Galen make his discovery?
He did a public dissection on a pig. He cut the nerses in it's neck and it screamed. He predicted that the next nerve he cut would stop it screaming and it did, as he had cut a nerve to the vocal chords.
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How good were Galen's findings?
Accurate about the brain controlling the body, wrong about many other things(Which were corrected by Vesalius and Harvey hundreds of years later).
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In what ways did the Roman's Public Health system improve?
Introduced Public Baths, Aquaducts, Sewers, Toilets.
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How important was war to the romans?
Need for healthy army led to improvements in Public Health, Greek doctors came to Rome as slaves, surgical skills improved through war inuries, solidiers kept public health features repaired.
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Where the Romans concerned with curing disease or preventing disease?
Preventing disease.
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What, specifically, was Galen wrong about?
Thought blood was created in the liver, blood goes through invisible holes in heart(septum), jaw is made of two bones(like a dogs).
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What was Roman surgery like?
Poor- no pain killer or antiseptic. Very little surgery inside the body, only surgery was cutting lumps off the outside of the body.
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How did Romans treatthier patients?
Lots of different theories of illness including Asclepius and other Gods to pray to. Still followed the theory of the 4 humours and clinical observation.
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What were Roman Aquaducts?
9 big pipes which brought 222 million gallons of water to Rome per day. They also took water to very rich peoples houses.
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What were roman baths?
There were 9 in Rome. They were luxurious and including a cold room, hot room, massage room and gym.
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What were Roman sewers?
Pipes which washed away dirty water and waste with stream ater. Named sewers like the 'Cloaca Maxima'. 300 slaves cleaned them each night.
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What did Rhazes contribute to medicine?
Noted the difference between Measles and Smallpox.
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What was the first period of the Middle Ages called?
The Dark Ages.
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How did war affect the middle ages?
It caused the collapse of Rome which lead to the lack of medical knowledge.
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Waht was anatomical knowledge like in the Middle Ages?
Later Middle Ages allowed one dissection per year prove that Galen was right.
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What did they think caused disease?
The four humours; Bad smells; Planets and Astrology and God.
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What did Avicenna contribute to medicine?
'The Canon of Medicine'.
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How did surgery develop in the middle ages?
Frequent wars led to lots of practise, still very little knowledge of bacteria, anaesthetics or antiseptics.
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What was bad about Middle age Public Health?
Sewers and Auaducts had fallen into disrepair. Dirt was everywhere.
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What was good about Middle ages Public Health?
Some realised the need for good diet; some monasteries did have fresh water supplies. Laws were passed to try and clean up towns.
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What were the contributions of christianity?
Urine charts, Hospitals were developed but only offered treatments for the soul(prayer), dissections were allowed once a year.
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How did Government offer treatments for the plague?
The Kings Evil or Kings Touch. Making contact with Gods representative on Earth( the King) could heal a plague sufferer.
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How did religion offer treatments for the plague?
Flagellation- people whipping themselves as punishment for their sins so that they would not be punished by the plague.
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What did the Islamic culture contribute to medicine?
The individual geniuses of Rhazes and Avicenna, They introduced the first hospitals, They invented Syringes, Hollow needles for cataracts and Catgut stitches for internal stitches.
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What was the renaissance?
The renaissance is a period between c.1400-c.1600. It is famous for it's discoveries in science, geography and art.
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What technological developments impacted medicine in the renaissance?
Printing press and microscope.
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How did Vesalius prove Galen wrong?
Vesalius proved the jaw bone was made of one jaw not two; and the breastbone has three parts not seven, as Galen said.
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How was The Fabric of the Human Body ground-breaking?
It was the first detailed and highly illustrated book on human anatomy. Thousands of copies were printed quickly and spread throughout Europe.
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Which factors influenced Vesalius's discovery?
Technology (printing press); Individual genius; Attitudes (enquiry).
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How was Vesalius's work a step forward?
He changed attitudes and doctors realised that there was more to be learnt. Accurate knowledge of the body was important.
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How was Vesalius's work limited?
Many doctors refused to accept Galen was wrong. Nobody was healthier as a result.
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What was Harvey's great discovery?
Harvey proved the heart pumped blood around the body in a one-way system.
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How did Harvey make this discovery?
He dissected humans and cold-blooded animals. He also tried to pump liquid past the valves in the veins but could not do so.
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What were the long-term effects of Harvey's work?
It laid the groundwork for Marcello Malphigi to discover capillaries. Surgery could develop. Dissection became more important.
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How was Harvey's work limited?
His idea was only gradually accepted. There was much more to discover - doctors could not make blood transfusions until they discovered blood groups in 1901. Nobody was healthier as a result.
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How did Pare improve the treatment for gunshot wounds?
Instead of using boiling oil, Pare used a mixture of egg yolk, oil of roses and turpentine.
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How did Pare deal with blood loss?
Pare used ligatures (silk thread) instead of the cauterising iron.
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How did Pare help wounded soldiers?
He designed and created false limbs.
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What factors influenced Pare's work?
Individual genius, War, Technology, Chance
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How was Pare's work limited?
Stopping bleeding with ligatures was slow. Ligatures spread infection. Still no effective anaesthetics and antiseptics.
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What did people think caused the Plague of 1665?
Alignment of the planets; bad air; some thought God sent it as a punishment; cats and dogs
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What treatments/preventions did people use?
Abracadabra charms; applying chicken feathers to the sores; not taking meat from the butcher; prayers and fasting.
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What did the government do to reduce the problems and prevent the spread of the Plague of 1665?
Hired watchmen, examiners, searchers and rakers.
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What was believed about the Bezoar stone?
That it cured all poisons.
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How did Pare prove this to be incorrect?
He tested it on a live patient, who died after taking a poison and the Bezoar stone.
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What treatments were used on Charles II during 1685?
Bleeding, purging, bezoar stone
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What does the story of Charles II tell us about medicine during the Renaissance?
Still relied on old ideas (4 humours) and ineffective treatments (bleeding, bezoar stone)
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What was the first attempt to reduce pain in surgery?
Humphrey Davy and Laughing Gas (Nitrous oxide) in 1799.
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Why was laughing gas not seen as a solution to pain relief?
It was only a partial solution and in a public demostration it failed to reduce pain
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What was the second attempt to reduce pain in surgery?
In 1847, J.R. Liston used Ether to amputate a leg successfully.
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Why was Ether not seen as a solution to pain relief?
The chemical irritated the eyes and lungs, it was also flammable and had a very strong smell.
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What was the third atttempt at pain relief in surgery?
In 1847, James Simpson discoverd Chloroform.
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Why was Chloroform not seen as a solution to pain relief?
Didn't know thelong term effects, it led to doctors doing more complex operations and more deaths, some thought it was unnatural, high death rates due to patients overdosing by inhaling too much
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How did Chloroform become more accepted in the late 1850's?
In 1857, Queen Victoria used it successfully
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How did Simpson's Chloroform get improved and accepted?
John Snow produced the Chloroform inhaler which administered the chemical in more controled amounts - used this with Queen Victoria
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What was the 'Black Period of Surgery'?
It was a period of increased death rates after the discovery of Anaesthetics, before antiseptics had been discovered
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What was the first step to solving the problem of infection?
Semmelweiss in 1847 discovering that dirty hands were the cause of deaths in mothers after delivering babies
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Why were Semmelweiss' ideas not accepted?
Semmelweiss was a fanatic and called other doctors 'murderers'. He was seen
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What was the second step to solving the problem of infection?
Lister used Semmelweiss' theory and Pasteur's Germ Theory to scientifically explain Semmelweiss' theory
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What inspired Lister's ideas?
Carbolic Acid was used in sewers to get rid of the smell. Lister started to soak bandages in it
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Why were Listers ideas not accepted by all?
It soaked the operating theatre, it slowed down surgery which made blood loss more dangerous, some surgeons thought 'germs' were too far fetched, others were not as successful as Lister because they were not as thorough
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How did Lister use his Carbolic acid?
He made a spray to use during operations and put it on ligatures to stop them causing infection
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was prehistoric Public Health like?

Back

The societies moved around a lot (nomadic) which means that waste did not build up around where they lived.

Card 3

Front

What did Prehistoric societies think caused illness?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What surgical knowledge did Prehistoric societies have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who gave healthcare to people needing it in Prehistoric times?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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