Medicine through time

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Roman doctors became experts in what two fields?
Pratical first aid and external surgery
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What technique did the Romans copy from the Greeks?
Clinical observation
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The Romans, like the Greeks, built Asklepions. True/false
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What three factors that led to the Romans building the first ever public health system being built?
1. Their suspicion of Greek doctors. 2. Their egineering abilities 3. The realistation that they needed to keep soldiers healthy for their army
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What 4 things were part of the Roman public health system?
Aqueducts, sewers, baths and hospitals
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Name one thing that Galen got right?
Realised that the nervous system takes messages to the brain and then to the muscles
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The Romans did not build on the Greek ideas about the nature of disease. However they did build on what Greek knowledge?
Anatomy and physiology
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In medieval times, who held the majority of academic knowledge?
The monastries
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To do with medicine, what happened after 1066?
Universities were established and trade and communications were developed
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In medieval times what was medicine dominated by?
The Roman catholic church
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Give some reasons as to why medicine stagnated in medieval times
The loss of medical knowledge. The church encouraged prayer and supisticion. Lack of resources to build public health systems.
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The time period between 476 and 1066 is known as what?
The dark ages
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In medieval times how did the church stagnate medical development in relation to Galen?
The church owned libaries and many teaching facilities. They agreed with the writings of Galen and so many aspiring doctors could only read about Galen whos anatomical discoveries were actually wrong
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In medieval times, how did the church help the development of medicine?
It encouraged people to go on crusades. Crusades meant that people would be travelling east. Here they came into contact with muslim doctors who were more skilled than the British doctors at the time
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6 non natural causes of disease that the medieval doctors belived caused disease
Sins. Stagnant water. The jews. Astrology. Bad smells. Demons
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Surgery was performed by trained doctors in the medieval times. True/false
False. Surgery was performed by barber surgeons
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In the medieval times there was constant warfare What did this mean for medicine?
Surgeons skills were in high demand and knowledge of how to treat wounds progressed
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They learnt to use wine as an antiseptic and opium as a anaesthetic. What time period am I referring to?
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Give an example of successful medieval external surgery
Removing face ulsers
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Give an example of successful medieval internal surgery
Removing bladder stones
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When were the first hospitals built since Roman times?
In the Medieval period in 1123
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Medieval people knew about the conncetion between clean living and good health. True/false
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What was a quarantine law?
It ordered the boarding up of any houses that contained infected people
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Who did towns pay to clear out cess pits?
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Medieval towns had an improved public health system to the Romans. True/false
False. Medieval towns didn't have any public health
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In medieval times who developed systems of public health?
The monastries
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What was the setting up of medical universities in medieval times not seen as much progress?
Because the lectures would just be a doctor reading from a book. And the book would be about Galen's ideas which we know to be wrong but then could not be argued with
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Vesalius is from which time period?
The renaissance
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William Harvey is from which time period?
The renaissance
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What did Vesalius do in 1536?
Discovered spermatic vessels and realised that Galen could be wrong because he found out that the jaw bone had one bone whereas Galen said it had two
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What did Vesalius do in 1537?
Improved medical training for aspring doctors by saying that medical students should carry out dissections whilist training
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When did Vesalius publish the fabric of the human body? And why was it considered to be so good?
1543. Because it contained highly detailed well drawn diagrams of the human anatomy
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What did William Harvey discover?
That blood circulated and was not used up.
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When did William Harvey claim it was impossible for blood to be used up in the muscles?
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When did William Harvey publish his book? And what was it called? And what did it prove?
1628. Anatomical account of the motion of the heart and blood. It proved beyond doubt the circulation of blood was true.
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What book marked the end of Galen's influence on medicine? Who was it published by?
Anatomical account of the motion of the heart and blood. William Harvey
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What did Thomas Sydenham say?
That doctors should visit the sick rather than the other way around
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What did Anton van Leeuwenhoek discover? And when? Why was this discovery not that important?
Bacteria. 1683. No one realised that bacteria caused disease
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3 ways people would try to cure the plague
Leeches. Sherry. Poises. The word abracadabra written in a triangle. Dried toad
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What was Pare doing at the time of his discoveries?
He worked as a barber-surgeon for the french army
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When did Pare make his discovery about the cauterising of wounds? What was the discovery?
1536. And that wounds would heal better if they were sealed with a soothing digestive containing rose oil, turpentine and egg yolk rather than hot oil
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Apart from using a soothing digestive rather that hot oil for sealing wounds, what other improvement did Pare make to medicine?
He used ligatures to tie up arteries instead of cauterisation
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In the renaissance period, if you got scrofula. What did you do to cure yourself?
Try and get touched by a king
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What major improvemnt in medicine happened in 1796?
Edward Jenner discovered that you could prevent disease by vaccinating people.
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Edward Jenner discovered that you could prevent small pox by vaccinating yourself by using cowpox. This was a big discovery but why did not much come of it?
Because he could not explain why it worked and therfore this lead to strong opposition to it.
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What 3 things what renaissance houses made of?
Wood, mud and horse dung
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What, in the renaissance period forced authorities to take public health mesaures?
The 1665 plague
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Name some measures that the Government took to try to prevent the spread of the plague in the renaissance period
Surgeons appointed to examine the dead. Examiners appointed to check if a household contained a sufferer of the plague, if so then the house would be shut up for 1 month. Households were ordered to collect all waste which would be collected by rakers
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The renaissance saw improvemnts in practice, but not theory. True/false
False. Its the other way around
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The poor could not afford expensive physicians. Who else could they go to?(5)
Country doctors - poorly trained. Barber surgeons. Apothecaries - chemists with no medical training. Quacks - travelling barbers. Wise women - local witches who specilaised in child birth
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Who discovered germ theory?
Louis Pasteur
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What did germ theory discredit?
Spontaneous generation
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What year was germ theory?
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When did Robert Koch achieve his dicoveries?
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Briefly what were Koch's discoveries?
He found out how to grow and stain bacteria on a petri dish and therfore he could see what perticular bacteria caused which perticular disease
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Name three diseases that Koch managed to find the exact bacteria which caused it
Septicimia. Tuberculosis. Cholera
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Why would some people say it was luck that Pateur founded germ theory?
Because his first commision was to find a cure for sour wine, this then lead him on to found germ theory
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What were postulates? And who developed them?
It is how a researchers should find a disease and Robert Koch developed that idea.
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Name a social factor that inspired Pasteur to found germ theory
The death of his two daughters
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Briefly how did the industrial revolution help the development of medicine in the 19th century?
Many inventions were made which would help researchers such as the multi lense microscope (1826) and the kymograph which measures pulse(1847) The xray (1865)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What technique did the Romans copy from the Greeks?


Clinical observation

Card 3


The Romans, like the Greeks, built Asklepions. True/false


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What three factors that led to the Romans building the first ever public health system being built?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What 4 things were part of the Roman public health system?


Preview of the front of card 5
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