Medicine and Treatment: 1350-1750

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  • Created by: Alicia
  • Created on: 17-04-14 20:54
What did Hippocrates believe?
Illness had a rational and physical basis and COULD be treated.
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What was the Ancient Greek belief about illness?
Everyone had a mix of four humours. People became ill when these were unbalanced...to make people better, these had to be rebalanced.
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Who was Galen and when was he important?
A Greek Doctor in the early Middle Ages. He developed the four humours idea and based treatment on the Theory of Opposites (too much phlegm = eat hot peppers to cure!)
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What was the basis of medical training and beliefs during the Middle Ages?
Galen's ideas - they fitted Christian beliefs. The Christian church was of great influence.
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Why did the Christian church have such an influence on the public's beliefs?
Monasteries housed most books and the church controlled education.
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What did the Christian church believe about illness?
God sent illness as a punishment. People should be like Jesus and care for the ill. Dissection was not good. Authority should not be challenged.
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What held back medical research in the Middle Ages?
The Christian church alongside Galen's theories. People did not think that there was a rational explanation for disease.
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What were treatments for illness during the Middle Ages?
Praying and Pilgrimages. Herbal remedies. Purging and bloodletting.
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Other than the imbalance of the four humours and God, what other explanations for disease were there in the Middle Ages?
Stars and Astrology - strange alignment of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Miasma - bad air and smells. Volcanoes - Poisonous gases from European volcanoes were carried in the air. Outsiders - strangers or witches.
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Who treated the ill during the Middle Ages?
Physicians. Apothecaries. Housewife Physicians. Monks and Nuns. Barber Surgeons.
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Describe the role and background of Physicians
Trained at University and took exams. Diagnosed illnesses. Were expensive so used mainly by the wealthy.
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Describe the role and background of Apothecaries
Were trained but had no medical qualifications. Mixed medicines and ointments based on their own knowledge. Cost money but not as expensive as Physicians.
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Describe the role and background of Housewife Physicians
Usually a village 'wise woman'. Helped with childbirth and common illnesses/injuries. Cheap and accessible.
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Describe the role and background of Monks and Nuns
Ran hospitals funded by church donations, cared for the elderly and the poor rather than generalized problems.Free!
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Describe the role and background of Barber Surgeons
No training. Carried out bloodletting, pulling teeth and lancing. Carried out surgery: VERY low success. Cost less than a physician.
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When did The Black Death hit London and how much of the population was killed?
1348. 1/3 of the population were killed.
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How did The Black Death become passed on?
Fleas living on black rats carried The Black Death. Rats traveled on trading ships. The plague passed on to humans when they were bitten by a rat, the disease went into their blood.
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What were symptoms of The Black Death?
Swelling of the lymph glands into large lumps filled with pus (buboes). Fever and chills. Headaches. Vomiting and Diarrhoea.
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How did people try to PREVENT illness?
Walked in procession and whipped each other and prayed. Fasted. Kept birds flying so that the air kept moving. Stopped unknown people from entering the village.
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How did people try to TREAT illness?
Praying and holding lucky charms. Cutting open buboes to drain the pus. Holding bread against the buboes then burying it in the ground. Eating cool things and taking cool baths.
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Whose authority was challenged during The Renaissance?
The Church's. People were still very religious but the authority of the church declined.
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What was established in 1660?
The Royal Society. They discussed new scientific ideas based on experiments, observation and recording or communicating results.
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Who was Versalius?
Italian. Anatomy. Proved that Galen's ideas were wrong. Drew muscles, nerves, organs and skeletons. Carried out HUMAN dissections, for the first time ever. 1543 - published 'The Fabric of the Human Body' which communicated ideas.
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Who was William Harvey?
English. Blood. Discovered that veins only carry blood. 1628 - published 'An Anatomical Account of the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals'. Struggled to prove ideas as veins were too small to see (no microscopes).
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What technological advancements came about in The Renaissance?
Better microscope lenses helped discover bacteria. Mechanical pumps helped to show that the body worked like a machine. The Printing Press was invented in the mid 15th century - it helped ideas become well known and was key in communication.
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What impact did The Renaissance have on Medicine and why?
Negative. Causes of disease were still unknown. Harvey and Versalius' ideas were slow to be accepted. Medical teaching was still mainly based on Galen's theories. Old treatment methods were still used.
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Why was public health and issue 1350-1750?
Towns and cities were getting bigger = more people.
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What were the problems with public health 1350-1750?
Rubbish, dead animals and human and animal excrement were left on streets. Rivers were often polluted. Little clean water (most people drank ale). Poor sanitation; sewage contaminated water.
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Was action from local authorities during 1350-1750 successful? Why?
There was little success. The cause of disease was still not understood.
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What were the 'solutions' of poor public health provision 1350-1750? (1665 Plague)
Cats and dogs KILLED. Tar was burned in the streets. Carts collected the dead and they were buried in deep mass graves. Theaters were closed and large funerals banned. Days of fasting and prayers. 28 day lockdown for households if they had the Plague
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What were 'privies'?
Toilets - padded seating over a toilet bucket for the use of one family. Only rich people had them. Other people shared cesspits.
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How did chamber pots get emptied?
Thrown out of the window or emptied in drains.
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Who were nightsail workers?
People paid o empty cesspits - the contents was sent to farmers for manure.
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Who was Harrington and what did he do in 1596?
Invented the water closet with a flushable system. People ridiculed the idea and so it was not properly developed for another 200 years!
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Up until the 19th Century, who acted on poor public health?
Local authorities, NOT the government.
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What were the by-laws that towns passed? What was the punishment for rule-breakers?
Keeping streets clean. Not dumping things in rivers. Those who broke the rules were fined.
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What were two successes in piping water into towns and cities?
Public Toilets. Public baths called 'stewes' where people bathed together; it was a bit of a social event for the rich.
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Who was Colthurst and when did he begin his venture?
1602. Started building an artificial river from Hertfordshire to London. He ran out of money after two miles!
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In 1609 what previous idea was redeveloped, and by who?
Colthurst's artificial river idea, Hugh Middleton tried again. He paid for half of the bills and King James I paid for the other. It was finished in 1613 but could not keep up with public demand for water.
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By 1750, what was the situation with the supply of water for the public?
Most water was supplied by private companies. It was either piped to homes directly, or to standpipes on street corners.
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Why didn't more action occur to combat the poor public health of the nation during the later stages of the time period?
Disease and dirt were still not linked (until Germ Theory in 1861). God was still seen as responsible for disease, so authorities and the government did not feel that they needed to be involved.
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What two key things did the government (eventually) do to help improve public health?
1750 - Gin was made more expensive - to improve the health of those drinking cheap gin and to stop people working while drunk.1853 - Smallpox vaccination was made compulsory; 1871 - all those vaccinated were registered and DEATHS DROPPED DRAMATICALLY
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Everyone had a mix of four humours. People became ill when these were unbalanced...to make people better, these had to be rebalanced.

Back

What was the Ancient Greek belief about illness?

Card 3

Front

A Greek Doctor in the early Middle Ages. He developed the four humours idea and based treatment on the Theory of Opposites (too much phlegm = eat hot peppers to cure!)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Galen's ideas - they fitted Christian beliefs. The Christian church was of great influence.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Monasteries housed most books and the church controlled education.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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