Medicine through time- The industrial revolution

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As war continued, what was needed?
New surgical techniques and more knowledge of the body
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What did doctors think about bacteria?
They noticed it but believed 'spontanious generation' (rotting flesh) caused it when it was the other way around
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What did Louis pasteur do?
He was asked to look at beer at a brewery and find out why it was going off. After looking under a microscope he realised air harboured bacteria. He later discovered heating bacteria killed them- pasterisation.
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What did Robert koch do?
He read Pasteurs work and set up a research team. He later discovered how to stain specific microbes to combat disease
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What discoveries did koch make?
1878- He stained specific microbes- septicaemia, 1878- paid by german goverment to find what microbes cause anthrax in sheep, he also found microbes for TB (1882), cholera (1883) and typoid/phnumonia (1880's)
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What was Edward jenner curious about?
How milkmaids were not catching smallpox- he wondered if they had cowpox (a weaker version) stopping them from getting it
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What did Jenner do?
He chose James Phillips on the 14th may he rubbed cowpox into a scratch on his arm. Weeks later James now had immunity but Jenner repeated this on other people.
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When did innoculations become compulsary?
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What was 19th century surgery like?
Poor- Procedures were horrific as most patients died from shock, infection and blood loss- london hospital death rate was 80%
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Why did surgery need to improve?
War- soldiers often needed treatment when injured and sometimes amputations
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What did Paul ehrlich do?
He thought if certain dyes stain bacteria, certain chemicals could kill them. He found/created a cure for syphlis and invented the magic bullet focusing on killing specific microbes
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What was public health like?
Bad- Towns were over-crowded and very dirty and there was lots of poverty
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What was Edwin chadwick asked to do?
He was assigned to go around the country and look at living conditions. In 1842 he published his findings in a survey- The sanitary conditions of the labouring population
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What did Edwin chadwick say in his report?
Taxes should pay for an improvement in housing, there was need for a clean water supply and rubbish needed to be removed from streets
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What effect did Chadwick's report have?
The goverment didn't do anything straight away as they has a laissez faire attitude and middle class didnt want their money taken. 1848 public health act- Towns had a health officer to check cleanliness
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What did Joseph bazalgette do?
The goverment spoke to him about the great stink when raw sewage was dumped into the thames, he created an idea of a 83 mile sewer system which was mad ein 1858
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What did John snow do?
In 1854 he began to investigatecases of cholera in towns, mapping the cases. He discovered most were situated around one pump (broud street). He said cholera was spread via water and that the pump was contaminated with raw sewage
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Who was Florence nightingale?
She grew up in a wealthy family and wanted to be a nurse. In 1850 she trained in Germany for 3 months learning the importance of cleanliness
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What was Florence nightingale known for?
She cleaned up hospitals in the Crimean war with a group of nurses- she swept floors, made open space and provided clean sheets so the death rate fell from 40% to 2%. She later set up her own nursing school
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Card 2


What did doctors think about bacteria?


They noticed it but believed 'spontanious generation' (rotting flesh) caused it when it was the other way around

Card 3


What did Louis pasteur do?


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Card 4


What did Robert koch do?


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Card 5


What discoveries did koch make?


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