Medicine Through Time Revision

The time periods: Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Saxon England, The Middle Ages, The Renaissance, The Industrial Revolution and The Twentieth century to modern day.

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What is the first time and when did it start/end?
Ancient Greece 800-140BC.
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What is the second time and when did it start/end?
Ancient Rome 400BC-500AD.
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What is the third time and when did it start/end?
Saxon England 500-1000AD.
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What is the fourth time and when did it start/end?
Middle Ages 1000-1400AD
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What is the fifth time and when did it start/end?
Renaissance 1350-1750.
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What is the sixth time and when did it start/end?
Industrial revolution 1750-1900.
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What is the seventh time and when did it start/end?
Twentieth century 1900-present day.
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Which Greek doctor was known as the 'founder of modern medicine?'
Hippocrates. Born 460BC
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Sum up Hippocrates' work.
Looked for natural treatments instead of prayer.Recorded symptoms,meant doctors were more likely to choose right cure for future patients.Wrote some of "Hippocratic collection"which doctors used for centuries.Told people to have light diet,exercise.
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What is the Hippocratic oath?
Oath created by Hippocrates to give people confidence in doctors.Says doctors must give high standard of treatment and work for the benefit of patients, not wealth.
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What is the theory of the four humours?What was used to treat them?
Idea that you are unwell when humours aren't balanced.(Spring=air=blood=leeches to bleed)(Summer=Fire=yellow bile=make you sick)(Autumn=Earth=black=bile=use toilet lots)(Winter=water=phlegm=make you hot and sticky)
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Why was Hippocrates important?
Didn't believe what everyone else did, did own research. Came up with idea of symptoms.Hippocratic Oath-modernised version used today.
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What are the main public health features of Roman Britain?
Public toilets,public baths,sewers,aqueducts.
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Briefly describe public toilets.
Most free to use. Toilets emptied into stone sewers .Flushed by rain water or bath house water.Used sponge on stick to wipe.
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Briefly describe aqueducts.
Fresh water from springs transported by pipes to aqueducts. Water stored in reservoirs near towns. Pipes carried water to towns from reservoirs to public wells,fountains,baths,toilets and private houses.
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Briefly describe sewers.
Waste water put in sewage system and then emptied into a river away from towns.Sewage system was made to prevent disease.
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Describe public baths.
People visited daily, very cheap.Functions(social,hygiene,Exercise,Medical-water had healing powers).Bathers went to steam rooms/saunas,massaged with oil to removed dirt,then bathers went into cold pool(frigidarium)
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How did public health in the Roman era keep people healthy?
1)Forts had sewers,good water supply,hospitals and toilets.2)Self sufficient sewers.3)Channels dug to transport fresh water-clay lined.4)Water supply to baths.5)Water tanks and reservoirs to store water.
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What were problems with public health in Roman Britain?
1)Forts only for soldiers.2)Poor water flow in sewers if there was little rain-disease.3)Lot of disease in bath houses.4)Regular disease outbreaks.5)bath water changed once a week.6)No all lived in towns.7)Sewers open or close to surface-bad smell.
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What did the people in Roman Britain think disease was caused by?
1)Supernatural e.g. God or curse.2)Bad air from swamps or bad smells.3)Imbalance of humors.
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Where did people in Roman Britain get help when they were ill?
1)Temple-made offerings,consult with priests,pray.2)Family-Father normally helped,remedies passed down.3)Hospitals-reserved for soldiers,good training for surgeons.4)Women-Pregnant relied on other women for help.
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Briefly describe Galen.
Born 129AD. Was doctor to Roman Emperor,wrote 60 books, came up with theory of opposites.Expert on anatomy, good as dissections.
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What is the theory of opposites?
Idea that using opposites could balance the humors e.g. if a patient was hot, they would be given something cold.
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What did Galen do in terms of anatomy and dissection?
Used apes to dissect. Discoveries: Blood in veins,nervous system.Proved:Brain controlled by body,not heart(pig experiment),arteries carry blood round body.
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What did Galen do in terms of diagnosis and the four humors?
Built on Hippocrates' ideas, believed illness caused by imbalance of humors. Told doctors to observe and examine patients,note symptoms. 167AD made detailed notes on plague- known as "Galen's plague".
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What did Galen do in terms of treatment?
Followed Hippocrates' advice of healthy diet and exercise. Most common treatment was bleeding patient-used it more than Hippocrates, who intervened as little as possible.
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What was Galen's influence?
Hundreds of books on his work and Hippocrates'.Covered everything so people thought he was right. Galen belivedbody was very complex so it had to be designed (he wasn't Christian).
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What was the effect of what Galen said about the body being designed?
Church interpreted it as God designed body.Church didn't allow human dissection, which held back medical progress for around 1500 years.
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What home remedies did the people of Roman Britain use?
Wealthy families had medical book.Women had wide knowledge of remedies.Honey and garlic used-kill bacteria. Some books had advice for after recovery.
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Were the home remedies similar to the Greeks?
Similar methods, different herbs. Still went to women but men looked in medical books.
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How were Gods and Priests used as treatments in Ancient Rome?
War charm-keep evil spirits away. Pray to household Gods for cure.Pray to God of healing.Temple for priests help. Carved sick part of body.
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Were the Gods and Priest treatments similar to the Greeks?
Both believed in diet and exercise. Only Romans believed in charms. Greeks had votive stones, Romans had votive carvings.
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What were trained doctors like in ancient Rome?
Had to pay. Anyone could call them self a doctor.
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Were trained doctors different to the Greeks?
Anyone in both eras could call them self a doctor. Both charged money, both trusted Hippocrates.
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When the Romans left, why was not having the Roman army a bad thing?
Nobody to maintain laws. No engineers or builders to maintain public health facilities. Nobody to stop invasions. Britain invaded by illiterate tribes (Angles, Saxons, Jutes).
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When the Romans left, why was no having a ruler or government a bad thing?
No overall control to pay for public health. Rulers priority was to keep and expand kingdoms- not public health and education.
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What did the war and chaos after the Romans left cause?
1)Destruction of libraries and books.2)More dangerous to travel, couldn't share ideas.3)Possessions, crops, livelihoods destroyed- poverty increase.
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What was the impact of the Romans leaving Britain on medicine and public health?
1)poverty=nobody could afford physician.2)New rulers illiterate, not interested in educating doctors.3)No longer travelled-couldn't travel to train or learn.4)Books containing medical knowledge destroyed.5)Towns abandoned-became farmers in villages.
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What was the churches influence like in Saxon England?
1)Illness=punishment from God.2)Learning preserved in monasteries and convent libraries.3)Cared for sick in monasteries and convents.4)People strongly believed in religion-accepted Church's authority.5)Church all across Europe, important.
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What did the Saxons believe caused illness?
God and superstitious.
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What treatments did the Saxons use?
Relied less on Galen and Hippocrates-still used bleeding and checked urine .Didn't bleed in summer-infection.Herbal.Garlic, chamomile, fungi and plants used for various treatments.
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Which ideas and treatments were carried on from the Romans?
Herbal remedies. Pray.Honey,onions,garlic.Lucky charm.Galen's ideas and theories.Urine chart. Bloodletting.
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What were new aspects that the Saxons had?
Trial and error.Astrology.Four elements.Prescribed medicines. Ground minerals.
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What were factors that affected the development of medicine in Saxon England?
1)Christian Church. 2)Prayers, offerings, superstitious rituals.
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What were problems with public health during the middle ages?
Waste dumped in streets.Narrow streets-no pavements.Chamber pots emptied out of window. Couldn't get rid of sewage.London population 17000 to 100000.Lot of animals.Filthy medical tools.Life expectancy=35.Lot of rats.
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What were the attempts to improve hygiene?
Plumbers tried to make toilets.Wooden shoes lifted above mud.Muck ringers cleaned streets.Pavement surveyors removed filth.Waste emptied into river:people bathed in or drank river water.Tax fro dumping waste.Butchers banned.Increased dumping fine.
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What were hospitals like in the Middle Ages?
First hospital= London 1123. By 1400, 500 in Britain (5-6 beds each).Hospitls didn't allow contagious,mentally ill or pregnant into hospitals.Hospitals provided food and prayer. Alters where priests said mass 7x per day.Nuns provided care.
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What did other people do to help the sick?
Women of household cared for sick.Women acted as midwives-some towns had licences. Woman could become apprentice and be a surgeon-needed family links e.g. Katherine had surgeon brother and father so she became one.No women in university.
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What was the training of doctors like in the middle ages?
1000-1300 landowners rich due to good harvest.Bishops and Abbots richest-built cathedrals ans founded universities. Paris-1100.Oxford-1167.Cambridge-1209. All trained physicians-less than 100 in 1300's due to cost.Student read Galen,lectures.
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What did the people of the Middle Ages think caused disease?
God.Humors.Bad air and dirt-thought earthquakes infected air.Some linked dirt to disease.Not respecting parents.Fashion choices.Jews poisoning water.
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What could people do to stay healthy?
Physicians gave advice to wealthy clients, wrote guides for them e.g. light meals,relax, bathe in hot water.Simple,written copies sold in towns.
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What treatments were used in the middle ages?
1)Urine charts-looked at zodiac men to see when to treat.2)Bleeding charts.3)Purging stomach.4)Herbal remedies-books had images and prayers to say whilst collecting ingredients.
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What was Hotel Dieu?
Hospital ran by Church. Had priests, monks and nuns- often no doctor. First in France then came to England.
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Explain how the growing power of the Church affected the Middle Ages.
1)Church sent missionaries over Europe to convert Pagan tribes.In few centuries, thousands of churches all over Europe.2)Church very strong throughout Middle ages.3)Galen's books survived in monastries, people read Galen when they went to University.
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How did the Church help the development of the Church?
1)Roger Bacon(priest) suggested doctors should do own research.2)Dissection only allowed on animals to teach anatomy.3)Rules of monastery "Care for sick stands before all".
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How did the Church hinder the development of the Church?
1)Priest Robert Bacon imprisoned for heresy.2)Dissecting bodies illegal.3)1200 hospitals in England and Wales-10% cared for sick.4)Cure for toothache write religious things on jaw.
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Why did people continue to read Galen in the Middle Ages?
1)All universities and medical schools used Galen-couldn't question him.2)Church thought people would question the Bible if they questioned Galen.3)All money for training came from Church.4)Church supported Galen-main authority.5)Dissections banned.
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What are 3 other factors that hindered medicine?
War, Religion and Government.
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How did war hinder the development of medicine?
1)Rulers built defences instead of public health systems.2)Tribes at war-destroyed Roman achievements.3)Destroyed medicinal libraries.4)Doctor training stopped-books lost or hidden.5)Education and technology disrupted.6)Travel dangerous.7)No Trade.
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How did Religion hinder the development of development?
Universities founded by Church- taught Galen.
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How did the government hinder the development of medicine?
1)Small kingdoms fought.2)Built defences rather than public health.
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What are 2 other factors that helped medicine?
Religion and government.
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How did Religion help the development of medicine?
1)Galen's books survived in monasteries.2)Doctors trained in universities.
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Give some information on the Black Death.
1346. Spread by rats, carried by fleas. Grew pus filled buboes. 250 years for society to recover.1/3 of Earth's population killed.Most families left with one adult.
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What did the people of the Middle Ages believe caused the Black Death?
1)Unusual positioning of Mars,Jupiter and Saturn.2)Poisonous fumes from volcanoes and earthquakes.3)Miasma.4)Imbalance of humors.5)Activities of outsiders e.g. witches,Jews.5)Smelling bad smells.
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What did the people of the Middle Ages believe cured the Black Death?
1)Herbs and spices to smell.2)Lucky charms.3)Tidying rubbish.4)Keep air moving e.g. ring bells.5)Light fire.6)Pray.7)Not letting people leave.8)Bloodletting, purging.9)Drain pus.
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What were the positive effects of the Black Death?
1)More freedom for peasants.2)Lords paid high wages.3)Feudal system collapsed.4)Officials realised towns and cities must be cleaner.5)Medical knowledge improved-doctors could study corpses.
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What were the negative effects of the Black Death?
1)1/3 of population killed.2)Villages deserted.3)Orphaned children.4)Jews attacked and murdered.5)Tax increased.6)250 years to recover.7)Some villages never recovered.
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Was there progress in the Middle Ages?
Still relied on Galen from 1000 years ago. Some decline as they believed smelling herbs would cure plague.
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Were the causes/treatments in the Middle Ages different to the Romans?
1)Still believed God and astronomy caused disease. 2)Still used theory of opposites. Similar to Roman era.
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Which things started to lead to progress at the start of the Renaissance?
1)Mechanical pump invented.2)Authority of Catholic Church decreased.3)Universities and medical schools founded 12th century.4)New plants discovered.5)Microscope invented.6)Printing press invented.
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Which things were holding back development at the start of the Renaissance?
1)Church discouraged dissection.2)Supernatural beliefs.3)Herbal remedies-some worked.4)Galen used for all medical training.5)Felt better after bleeding or purging.6)Reluctant to change.7)Church controlled education.
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Give some information on Vesalius.
Belgian, born 1514. Originally followed Galen's work. Dissected bodies of dead criminals.Released book on dissection.
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What were the discoveries made by Vesalius?
1)Human jaw has 1 bone not 2.2)Breastbone- 3 parts not 7.3)Blood doesn't flow through invisible holes in septum.4)River has no lobes.
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What were the factors that affected Vesalius' discoveries?
1)Printing press-allowed things to be copied. 2)In Italy, Renaissance artists illustrated diagrams for Vesalius' book.3)Church had less power.
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What were the developments Vesalius made and how important were they?
1)Believed anatomy important for successful surgery-based on facts,more accurate.2)Produced nervous system and blood charts-people knew how they worked.3)Compared human dissections-better understanding.
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Give some information on Harvey.
English, born 1578.Studied medicine in Italy, tutored by Fabricius. Fabricius discovered valves on veins; didn't know purpose. Harvey published book on findings.
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What were Harvey's achievements?
Proved- Heart is pump(water pumps in London may have inspired him). Body has one was system for blood. Dissected-Live,cold blooded animals to see heart muscles. Human bodies for detailed knowledge of heart.
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What were the developments made by Harvey and how important was he?
1)First to accurately describe how blood is pumped-allowed treatments to develop.2)Realised purpose of valves-easier for physicians to understand body.3)Explained heat pumps body in a circular way-bloodletting didn't help, understand anatomy.
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What were hospitals like during the Renaissance?
1)1750-cared for almost all cared for poor people.2)Wealthy paid for home visits.3)Most hospitals didn't admit infectious diseases.4)Some taken over by councils.5)11 new hospitals in London, 46 more across Britain.
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What were treatments like during the Renaissance?
1)Patients kept clean, warm, fed regularly.2)Given herbal remedies or bled.3)Simple surgery carried out e.g.setting fractures.4)Sometimes amputations.5)All treatments free- expected to pray for recovery.
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What was science like before the Renaissance?
1)Learned about Galen.2)1500's Vesalius started to question Galen, people didn't like it.
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What was science in the Renaissance like?
1)Methodical approach.2)Looked at previous work, asked questions. made hypothesis and test. Wrote up findings.
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What was the Royal Society?
1)London 1645.2)Group of people interested in new science ideas.3)1662 given royal charter-then called royal society.4)Met weekly discussed physics, anatomy and medicine.5)Had lab with microscopes, published books.
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What did King Charles II do during the Renaissance?
1)Attended Royal society meetings.2)Had lab and observatory built in palace.3)After civil war people suspicious of meetings- Charles' support protected them.
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Describe blood transfusions during the Renaissance?
1)1665 Richard Lower (royal society) made first blood transfusion from one dog to another.2)Then from sheep to man. Man was 'crack-brained student' called Arthur Coga. 3)People though transfusion would make Coga clever.
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What were the stepping stones to the future during the Renaissance?
1)New experimental approach to science, challenges old ideas.2)Breakthroughs encouraged people to do own research.3)Books stimulated more ideas. Galen's work faded during 1600's and 1700's.
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Why should we not exaggerate the progress made?
1)Lots of new discoveries still needed to be made.2)1600's herbal remedies still used. 3)Took time to end opposition from Galen supporters.
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What was physician training like during the 1700's?
1)Diagnosis by studying urine and astrology barely used.2)Dissected but was body shortage.3)1768 William Hunter set up medical school in home in London, allowing student to specialise in anatomy and childbirth.4)Little training in England.
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What was William Hunters' impact?
1)Knew books not all accurate, observing and practical work best way to progress.
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Give some information on the Great Plague.
1665, killed 100,000 people. Summer 1665 200,000 fled. Spread by fleas.Children died quicker.August- 7000 deaths per week. Shut people in houses.
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What were the reactions to the Great Plague?
Infectious houses boarded up.Didn't handle money.Locked infected in house until death or recovery.Nurses not trustworthy.Children encouraged to smoke to prevent it.
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What were the attempts to control the Great Plague?
Board up houses. Watchmen to prevent escape. Food drink, medicine for infected.Smoked or chewed tobacco.No member of house of lords shut in if infected.No plague hospitals.Mask with herbs in it.Fumigation-rats fled.
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What was public health like during the Renaissance?
1600's London's population exploded 1/10 lived there. London cramped, maze-like streets.Houses packed, slums.Very dirty. Drank ale instead of dirty water.Gin-responsible for low birthrate and high infant mortality.Chamber pots used, contents thrown.
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What was done by individuals to get a better water supply.
1)1602 Colthurst started artificial river to bring fresh water to London, stopped after 2 months(Finance)2)1609 Sir Hugh Middleton continued, finished in 1613.
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What was done to improve toilets?
1)Sir John Harrington invented WC (water closet) 1596. Queen Elizabeth installed one in palace.People ridiculed WC, not used widespread for 200 more years.
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What did the government do to improve public health during the Great Plague?
1)No animals in city.2)Infected houses had watchmen.3)Anyone attending infected house couldn't leave for 28 days.4)Burials at night, 6ft deep.5)Street performers banned.6)Pubs, coffee shop, theatres closed.7)Tar burned in streets.8)Gin expensive.
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What promoted progress during the Renaissance?
1)Mechanical pump invented.2)Authority of church decreased.3)Printing press invented.4)Microscope invented.5)New plants discovered.6)Universities founded.
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What things held back progress during the Renaissance?
1)Church controlled education.2)Some felt better after purging.3)some herbal remedies worked.4)Few could afford physician.5)Galen's work used.6)Minor illnesses treated by family.7)Reluctant to change.
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Why was there slow change in terms of attitude during the Renaissance?
1)Opposition to Vesalius' criticism of Galen.2)Opposition to Harvey's ideas about blood.
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Why was there slow change in terms of government during the Renaissance?
1)Kings believed task was war decisions and religion, not improving health.
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Why was here slow change in terms of beliefs during the Renaissance?
1)Church supported traditional ideas.2)Continued belief in theory of 4 humors.3)Touching for kings evil.
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What is Kings evil?
It was believed in England and France that touch from royalty could heal skin disease scrofula or 'kings evil'. Scrofula was swelling of lymph nodes, caused by tuberculosis.Queen Anne (died 1714) last monarch to do this.
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What were 4 common diseases during the Industrial revolution?
Cholera, Smallpox, Polio and Measles.
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What were the believed causes of disease during the Industrial revolution?
1)Bad air.2)Shared outside toilets.3)Water from pump.
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What were treatments during the Industrial Revolution?
1)Vaccinations- against law not to have children vaccinated.2)Pasteur's germ theory helped prevent deadly diseases.3)Hot turnip mash to treat chilblains.4)Bleeding and laxatives still used.5)Amputations.6)Keeping clean and healthy.
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What was doctor training like during the Industrial Revolution?
1)Had to pay.2)Some nurses had no training.3)Had local board of health.
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What were the four factors affecting medicine during the Industrial revolution?
Urbanisation. War and Conquest. Government action. New technology.
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How did urbanisation affect medicine during the Industrial Revolution?
1)Dirty,unpathed streets- no sewers.2)Crowded-easy to catch and spread disease.3)Factories hot in same position for hours-children in bad conditions could affect development.4)Overcrowding-not enough houses.5)Unsanitary conditions.
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How did war and conquest affect medicine during the Industrial Revolution?
1)Florence Nightingale set up nursing school-better treatment.2)Henry Dunant set up red cross.3)Doctors had personal rivalries to make discoveries-discoveries made faster.4)Wars with better weapons-more death, more practice.
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How did government action affect medicine during the Industrial Revolution?
1)last 10-15 years London had satisfactory sewers.2)Very defective, imperfect, small streets had sewers but some large ones didn't-streets dirty, disease spread.
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How did new technology affect medicine during the Industrial Revolution?
1)Large amounts of steel produced-hypodermic needle made.2)Developments in glass led to better microscopes and thermometer.-better equiptment, new discoveries and understanding.3)Steam train and ship reduced time to travel, 1891 telephone-info faster
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Briefly describe Edward Jenner.
Surgeon.1798 Published book showing vaccines could be used to prevent smallpox.
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Describe small pox.
Killed more than any other disease in 1700's.Survivors disfigured.Innoculation-injecting pus from smallpox into healthy human for mild smallpox.Inoculation £20 per person. People could get strong case and die.
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Describe Jenner's discovery.
1)Knew milkmaids who has cow pox didn't get smallpox.2)1790's carried out experiments to test theory.3)1798-published book of findings and evidence.4)23 cases to prove theory.5)Discovery saved millions worldwide.
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How did Jenner develop and spread the use of vaccinations?
1)1802 and 1807 government gave him £30,000 to develop work, 1852 made compulsory.2)Published research despite criticism.3)1798 published own account of discovery, spread details worldwide.
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What was the impact of the vaccination discovery?
1)Encouraged other doctors and scientists to solve problems.2)Widely used in Britain.3)1803 vaccination used in US.4)1805 Napoleon had French army vaccinated.5)1980 smallpox eradicated.
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Why is Jenner's discovery not to be exaggerated?
1)Only dealt with smallpox.2)He didn't understand bacteria or disease or how they work.3)Many people opposed vaccinations.$)Government not sure whether to make them compulsory.
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What are arguments for vaccinations?
1)400,00 Europeans died of smallpox per year.2)Alternative to inoculation.3)Surgeons didn't want Jenner to succeed-less money.4)1st July vaccinated James Phipps, became immune,5)Vaccine changed scientific understanding of disease.
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What is the anti vaccine society?
Set up 1866, opposed Jenner and his vaccinations.
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What were the anti vaccine society's arguments against Jenner and vaccines?
1)Religious grounds-not natural.2)Increased risk of cancer and leprosy.3)Selling uneducated public complex treatment.4)Transform you into cow.5)Won't be treated by God's lowlier creatures.
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What were the two theories during the Industrial Revolution on how disease was spread?
1)Miasma-bad air filled with poisonous fumes from rotting matter.2)Spontaneous generation-disease caused by germs produced by rotting fruit and vegetables.
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How was cholera spread and what were the effects of it?
Spread through bacteria in food and water that's contaminated by the waste of an infected. Effects:Sickness, diarrhoea.2/3 died.
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How was diphtheria spread and what were the effects of it?
Spread through tiny droplets when coughing and sneezing. Effects-bleeding, blocked throat.
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How was smallpox spread and what were the effects of it?
Spread by touch or tiny droplets when coughing or sneezing. Effetcs-rash, blisters filled with pus.1/3 died.
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How was tuberculosis spread and what were the effects of it?
Spread by tiny droplets when coughing and sneezing. Effect- constant coughing, chest pains, weight loss.1/2 died.
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How was typhoid spread and what were the effects of it?
Spreade through bacteria in food and water contaminated by waste of infected.Effects-headaches, fever, severe diarrhoea. 1/3 died.
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Describe Louis Pasteur.
Born 1822, university scientist. Had stroke in 1868, continued work- went on to make his greatest discoveries.
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Describe Pasteur's work.
Developed germ theory in France.Experiments suggested beer,wine and milk went sour due to microbes in air.Then suggested microbes carried disease. Published theory 1861. He didn't know which microbes caused disease. Microscope essential to discovery.
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Why was Pasteur significant?
First to prove illness was due to bacteria and germs.
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What was Paster's limitation?
He didn't know which bacteria's caused illnesses.
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Describe Robert Koch.
Born 1843, German. Doctor, employed by German government.
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Describe Koch's work.
1)Discovered anthrax could infect people as well as animals.2)Found way of straining microbe so it stood out under microscope.
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Why are research teams important?
1)More likely to have funding-Able to afford expensive, new technology.2)Easier to check each others work.3)Different knowledge e.g. biology, chemistry, medicine.
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Describe Florence Nightingale.
Born 1820 in Florence.Believed she was chosen by God for special purpose.She wanted to be nurse, at time they were ignorant and drunk.
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Describe Florence's' work.
1)Worked out mortality rate would fall if sanitation improved.2)1855 mortality fallen from 60% to 2.2%..3)Researched disease in war hospitals, showed need for hospital reforms.4)1860 set up nursing school in London.
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What were the improvements in medical training during the Industrial Revolution?
1)Teaching hospitals where students could observe doctors at work.2)Many students dissected bodies.3)Studied microbes and disease .4)Training on how to use technology e.g. stethoscopes and thermometers.
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What were midwives like during the Industrial Revolution?
1)Most were women. after introduction of forceps in 17th century numbers fell as they weren't allowed the training.2)Instead 'men midwives' more common and treated wealthier women.
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What qualifications were needed during the Industrial Revolution?
1)18th century doctors needed certificate from Royal college of physicians, surgeons or apothecaries.2)After 1815 latter of two set exam to be passed before certificates rewarded.3)After 1858, all doctors had to be registered-general medical council.
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What was the training of doctors like during the Industrial Revolution?
Lectures, reading,some practical. University teachers decided training.Government did not regulate education.
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What was the understanding of cause of illness like during the Industrial revolution?
Spontaneous generation.News of new theory but no proof.
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What was the equipment for diagnosing illness like during the Industrial Revolution?
Little equipment- a thermometer and stethoscope.
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What was the ability to treat the less well off like during the Industrial Revolution?
Surgery for poor but small charge for medicine. Some did charity work for poor but still small fee for medicine.
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What were treatments like during the Industrial Revolution?
Herbs, may bleed. Changes in diet and exercise, rest. Common diseases only treated by diet, rest and exercise.
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What was the method of payment during the Industrial Revolution?
Relied on payment for patients, gets paid for visits and medicine.
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Where were people treated during the Industrial Revolution?
1)1859-first college hospital.2)Middle and upper class who could afford doctors fees normally treated at home.2)Old sick or disabled went to workhouses.4)Some doctors set up sick clubs for middle and working class, paid small amount each month.
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Why was there public concern for the poor during the Industrial Revolution?
1)1860's lot of publicity about care for poor.2)1864 Louisa Twining established workhouse visiting society- campaigned for workhouse reform.
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What did the publicity and pressure lead to ?
1)Public became concerned, put pressure on local councils for improvement, e.g. poor law unions-improved hospital care for poor.
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What action did the government take to change hospitals?
1)1867-ordered poor law unions to build infirmaries that had full time doctor.2)New asylums and fever houses set up.
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What are other factors that helped with the development of hospital care?
1)Regulating nurse training.2)Pastuer's germ theory.3)Joseph Lister used carboxylic acid as antiseptic-showed importance of antiseptic conditions.
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Give a summary of how hospitals changed in the 19th century.
1)1900-recognition hospitals needed to be improved.2)Stnadard of care in workhouses rising.3)Hospitals not funded by government.
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What were the believed causes of cholera during the Industrial Revolution?
1)Punishment from God/behaviour.2)Dirt in streets.3)Poisons in air.
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Why was public health bad during the Industrial revolution?
1)Doctors not paid by government-poor couldn't afford.2)Government no expected to make improvements.3)Laissez-faire.4)Population increase.5)Working conditions poor-long hours.6)Germ theory not accepted until 1860's.7)No railways.8)No fresh food.
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What problems did Chadwick say in his report?
1842 1)Poor lived in dirty, overcrowded conditions.2)Caused huge amount of illness.3)Many people too sick to work.4)People had to pay higher tax to help poor.
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What solutions did Chadwick suggest in his report?
1)Improve drainage and sewers.2)Remove refuse from streets and houses.3)Provide clean water.4)Appoint medical officers to check reforms.
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Describe the public health act of 1848.
1)Not compulsory. 2)National board of health to be set up.3)Councils to take taxes for public health improvements.4)Councils to appoint medical officers.
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Describe the public health act of 1875.
1)Compulsory.2)Councils forced to provide clean water,public toilets,proper drains and sewers.3)Forced to appoint medical officer.
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What were the results of Chadwick's work?
1)By 1900- people living longer, healthier lives, life expectancy 46 for men and 50 for women.2)Towns cleaner and safer.3)Got a knighthood aged 89.
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What are positive things about Chadwick?
1)Work produced evidence supporting public health reform.2)1842 report influenced government and persuaded people reform was needed.3)Reports reccomendations were basics of 1848 public health act.
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What are negative things about Chadwick?
1)1842 report didn't lead to immediate reform.2)Reform came in 1848 but wasn't compulsory.3)Personality antagonised people, didn't win support for cause.4)Influence faded in 1850's.
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Describe the work of William Farr.
1)After 1837, births, deaths and marriages recorded.2)Farr used information to show where death rates were highest and cause.His statistics put pressure on government to make changes.
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Describe the work of John Snow.
Mapped deaths of cholera, discovered cesspit leaking into drinking water-causing cholera. Despite the proof, scientists still though it was bad air.
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What did the government do to improve public health?
1)1867 working class men given vote.2)1884 more men given vote.3)In order to get votes, political parties promised to improve public health.
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How did attitudes and belief affect public health during the Industrial Revolution?
1)1861-Pasteur published germ theory.2)1864-convinced scientists theory was correct-proved Chadwick,Farr and Snow were correct.3)After truth published, people more willing to pay tax.
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How did science and technology affect public health during the Industrial Revolution?
1)Industrial revolution led to improvements in technology and building of railway.
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How did the great stink affect the improvement of public health?
1)The Great Stink 1858- hot, no rain, smell from river worse-worst at houses of Parliament.2)This showed public reform was needed.3)In London, effective,modern sewer system built-no new act to enforce improvements.
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Describe why life expectancy increased in the 20th century.
1)Start of 20th century,people lived in cramped, unhygienic conditions, not able to pay doctor.1901-47.2)20th century and now, better living standards,better diet.Higher life expectancy.
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What are developments in the fight against disease?
1)Vaccination development- prevent disease.2)Magic bullets- target one place in body.
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Describe the first magic bullet.
1)Salvarsan 606.2)Paul Ehrlich(from Koch's research team)and Dr Hata discovered it in 1909, was for syphilis.3)Ehrlich used government funds for research, made mistake which Hata found.
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Describe the second magic bullet.
1)Prontosil.2)Gerhad Domagk discovered it in 1932.3)Cured blood poisoning-first tested on dying daughter.
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Why was the discovery of the magic bullets important?
1)Sulphonamide in prontosil led to development of different sulphonamides for pneumonia,scarlet fever.2)Could cure many infections.3)Pharmaceutical industry grew rapidly-pills mass produced.
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Describe Alexander Fleming and antibiotics.
1)Alexander Fleming was chemist.2)1928, noticed culture of bacteria growing on Petri dish being attacked by unknown mould.3)Discovered mould was antibiotic penicillin,only tested on bacteria.4)1929 published findings, difficult to get funding.
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Describe Florey and Chain and antibiotics.
1)1940 tested penicillin on mice.2)1941 tested on patient-worked but ran out so he died.3)No British firm would allow them to mass produce penicillin-factories in use for war.4)Florey went to USA, no funding. Continued on next card....
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Florey and Chain continued...
5)When US got involved in WW2, US government funded mass production of penicillin.6)Used large scale 1944 on D-day.
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Describe the study of genetics before the double helix discovery.
1)19th century Mendel showed characteristics passed down generations.2)19th Century took x-rays(discovered 1895 by Roentgen).3)Known each cell has DNA,decides eye colour etc.4)Scientists needed to know how the genetic code fitted together.
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Describe the discovery of the double helix.
1)Crick and Watson worked together to investigate DNA.2)Used X-ray crystallography by Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin(Franklin suggested double helix).3)Genetic research expensive but many posibilities
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What role did science play in the 20th century?
1)chemical treatment of disease(magic bullets).2)Antibiotics.3)More vaccines.4)Better understanding of genetics.5)Treatments developing for conditions like diabetes.
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Who discovered that there are different blood groups?
Karl Landsteiner in 1901.
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What did this discovery mean?
1)People won't die from lack of blood.2)People with blood disorders can get treatment.3)But, the blood couldn't be stored as it clotted.
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How was the problem of storing blood solved?
1)1915 discovered adding sodium citrate prevented blood cells but blood cells soon deteriorated.2)1916 new science made it possible to store blood. Blood banks established.
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Give examples of technology used today in medicine.
X-rays machines.X-ray crystallography.Scans.Nuclear medicine.Dialysis machines.Dispensing instruments.Pacemakers.Endoscope.Microscopes.Radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
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What was the care of the sick like in the early 20th century?
1)Women in family mainly responsible for treating illnesses.2)Traditional 'folk remedies' continued to be used.3)Minor surgery e.g. taking out tonsils done by doctor on kitchen table.4)Anything serious done my consultant in big hospital.
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Explain charitable hospitals.
1)Many hospitals funded by charity-fundraising vital.2)1912, Queen Alexandra started national rose day-volunteers sold roses to raise money.Collected £2 million in today's money.
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How was access to healthcare improved?
1)1900-most cities had infirmaries,fever houses and asylums to care for poor.Also cottage hospitals and sanitariums.2)1907-health visitors introduced to visit new mothers.3)1911-National Insurance Act-workers pay into fund, when ill doctors fees paid
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How was the standard of medical care improved?
1)Nurses trained in hospital.2)1900-doctors had to have medical degree.3)1902 Midwives act- Midwives had to be properly trained.4)1919 Nursing act- set up general nursing council- enforce high standards of training.
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What did the government do to improve care for the sick?
1)Knew there had to be changes after Boer war when most of soldiers were unfit.2)Introduced Liberal reforms.
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Describe the National Insurance Act
1)1911-those who earned less than £160 a year expected to join scheme.2)The sceme funded free medical treatment and medicine. Sick pay up to 6 months, unemployment pay for 15 weeks.
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What year was the old age pensions act introduced?
1908.
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When was the ministry of health set up?What was it?
1919. Gave government overview of healthcare provisions all over country. Government starting to take more responsibility.
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What were problems with the new acts?
1)Epidemic of influenza in 1918-1919 showed not enough free hospital places.2)Women and children not covered by National Insurance scheme.
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What was the life expectancy in 1931?
Males=58 Females=62.
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What else did the government do to improve the health of the nation?
1)Secondary pupils got medical inspections.2)Free milk for poor primary school children-1934.3)Health clinics gave vaccinations and sold baby food cheaply.4)Many hospitals brought under control of local authority.5)Free vaccinations.
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What were the effects of WW2 on public health?
1)During evacuation, people shocked that children not used to running water,toilet paper.2(Children had nits,lice or skin infections.3)Food rationed-poor healthier than in the 30's.
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Why was the NHS set up?
1)Inequalities in healthcare.2)Laissez-faire attitudes gone,3)Beveridge report identified disease as problem.4)Medical breakthroughs meant more could be done for sick.
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Who set up the NHS?What year?
1948 by Aneurin Bevan.
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What was the Role of Bevan?
1)Overcame cost opposition and Medical Association.2)Bevan promised doctors they could treat privately and for NHS also gave leaflets telling people to check if doctor registered with NHS.
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Describe the NHS.
1)Offered care from 'cradle to grave'.2)Funded by government.3)Gave people right to see doctor,dentist, opticians, emergency treatments, care for pregnant and elderly.4)1951 had to pay for prescriptions.
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What were developments in education and prevention?
1)Developments in vaccines-polio mid 50's, cervical cancer 2008.2)Campaigns and laws on health issues, e.g. smoking.3)Promotion of healthy diets.4)Better rubbish disposal and sewage treatment.5)Laws to reduce pollution(1956 clean air act).
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What was government action on smoking?
1)1962 Royal college of physicians called for ban on smoking adverts.2)Began taxing cigarettes heavily.3)1971-have warning.4)2004-1/6 deaths due to smoking.5)2005-ban on smoking advertising.6)2007-Smoking in public places banned.
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How does the government get their points on health across?
1)Message on products.2)Adverts.3)Posters.
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Explain public health and private companies.
Private companies responsible for things like water-reluctant to carry out repairs on old pipes due to cost.
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What do pharmaceutical industries do?
1)employ and finance scientists and researchers to find cures.2)Develop technology to mass produce remedies.3)Use advertising to make people aware of products and buy them.
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What role does the pharmaceutical industry play?
1)Important as they find new cures and treatments.
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What are problems with pharmaceutical industries?
1)Unforeseen side effects e.g. thalidomide.
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What are ethical questions related to pharmaceutical industries?
1)'Playing God'.2)Human embryos or hybrids used.3)Fear of side effects.
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Why is the cost of the NHS increasing?
1)People live longer, more likely to develop problems needing treatment.2)Improvements mean people expect greater range of treatment.3)New drugs can be expensive.4)Treatment more complex, equipment more expensive.5)Staff costs high..
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What are factors that lead to change?
War,government,science,technology etc- can have good and bad effects
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Why does the speed of development change?
One breakthrough can allow others to develop the work and add new ideas.
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Describe antibiotic resistance.
1)Some bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics-thought we found permanent cure.2)Could mean antibiotics stop completely, have regulations and new hygiene standards.3)Scientists looking at new ways to kill bacteria.4)Shows progress in medicine slow
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