Medicine Through Time OCR GCSE History A

I have made these flashcards using details straight from the specification. It will cover the key facts, dates and figures from each unit and will also have a few pieces of evidence that you can use in your exam.

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Why is there little evidence about medicine in prehistoric times?
Prehistoric means before written communication, around 30,000BC. Ideas about their knowledge of medicine comes from drawings or skeletons.
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What were the main values and consequential problems for prehistoric civilisations?
They were constantly fighting for land and strong women to carry their children. They were often hurt fighting so began to develop treatments that would heal injuries so there would be more men for hunting. Many women died from child birth.
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What was common for prehistoric civilisations?
They were nomadic, meaning they didn't settle down but kept on the move.
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What problems arose from th prehistoric civilisations?
They didn't build hospitals or observe how bodies work as they had no consistency in their lives (due to being nomadic).
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What did prehistoric people believed caused disease?
They believed in evil spirits (a supernatural cause of disease).
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What treatments were used in the prehistoric era?
Both supernatural treatments like chanting/dancing or magic rituals and natural treatments like herbal remedies and honey (antiseptic).
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What surgical treatments did prehistoric people have?
Trephining/trepanning. This was for spiritual reasons: to remove an evil spirit from the skull when someone had a bad headache/epilepsy.
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What knowledge of the human body did prehistoric people have?
They must have known of bone structure due to some burial practices involving stripping away flesh.
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What did this practical knowledge result in?
Setting broken bones with mud
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Who treated disease in the prehistoric era?
Women would often treat illness with herbal remedies that had been past down from mother to daughter. Most tribes often had a medicine man.
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What was prehistoric public health like?
The Australian Aborigines buried their excrement far from the camp but this was for religious reasons (to stop an enemy finding it and stealing their spirit!)
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What was different about the Ancient Egyptian civilisation compared to the prehistoric era?
Began around 5000BC: They had a government, a strict religion and began to write medical ideas down on papyri. The got new ideas from trade with foreign lands.
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How did the government effect medicine in Ancient Egypt?
There was law and order set by a ruling pharaoh. They ensured their religion was enforced and this meant that new skills were learnt.
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How did religion effect the knowledge of the human body in Ancient Egypt?
Religion meant that dead bodies had to go through the mummification process: the process involved embalming which taught of the human anatomy.
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How did religion effect public health in Ancient Egypt?
Religion required cleanliness in temples so people regularly washed themselves and cleaned the temple, which had a knock on effect on public health.
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What did the Ancient Egyptian civilisation believed caused disease?
Supernatural: sent by the gods or evil spirits Natural: the channel theory
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How was the channel theory developed?
Egyptians noticed that when the irrigation channels from the nile got blocked, their crops died. They linked this to blood vessels being blocked causing illness.
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What was the channel theory?
The belief that gases from rotting food in the bowel blocked the 'channels' of blood. They believed there was around 40 channels.
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What treatments in surgery did the channel theory cause?
The removal of cysts or abscesses - 'blockages'
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How else was illness treated in Ancient Egypt?
Supernatural: prescribed prayer alone or alongside all natural treatments Natural: purging & herbal remedies
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Who treated illness in Ancient Egypt?
Doctors (mix of a physician and priest) or specialised physicians
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Who was Imhotep and Sekhmet?
Originally a Pharaoh's architect and doctor but became the God of Healing. Sekhmet was the Goddess of Healing.
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Where were people treated in Egyptian times?
The Temple of Healing
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What was Greek medicine based around?
The belief that the world was controlled by gods.
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Who was the Greek God of Healing?
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Where were patients treated in Ancient Greece?
An Asclepion. A patient would be bathed and then led to sleep in the Abaton where Aslecpius and his daughters (Hygeia and Panacea) would visit them in their dreams and cure them of their disease.
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What treatments were given in the Asclepia?
Priests would pray with and for them as well as giving them herbal remedies and, in rare cases, performing simple surgery.
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Who was Hippocrates and what did he come up with?
A greek philosopher who came up with the Theory of the Four Humours
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What was the Theory of the Four Humours?
The idea that all humans had four humours (liquids) in the body and when they became unbalanced, a person would get ill. They were linked to the four elements and seasons.
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What was the problem with the Theory of the Four Humours?
It wasn't accepted by the Christian Church
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What were the humours and what were they linked to?
Yellow Bile (sick) - Summer - Fire Black Bile (faeces) - Autumn - Earth Phlegm - Winter - Water Blood - Spring - Air
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How would you treat an imbalance of yellow or black bile?
Giving a purgative or laxative
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How would you treat an imbalance of blood?
'Bleeding' a patient by making a small cut and then placing a warm glass over it to draw out the blood.
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How would you treat an imbalance of phlegm?
Providing a 'dietary regimen' or herbal remedy that would cause the patient to cough
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What else did Hippocrates pioneer?
The Hippocratic Oath that is still used today (to give patients confidence in their doctors), the Hippocratic Collection of Books that was used to teach medical students and the observation and recording of patients meant treatments could be refined
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What were other treatments?
Natural: good diet, exercise and rest. Supernatural: prayer (they continued to believe gods could cause disease)
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What is an example of continuity (something that has continued from a previous era) in Ancient Greek medicine
They continued to believe gods could cause disease
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What did the government prohibit and why? What is it an example of?
Dissection of human bodies as it went against their religion. It is an example of how the factor of religion hindered medical development.
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What advances were made in health and hygiene in Ancient Greece?
They had public toilets, had baths and lavatories for the rich and
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What was Alexandria?
A place in Egypt where mummification still took place and so dissection was allowed
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What advances were made in surgery in Ancient Greece?
They made new surgical instruments with iron and steel and poured wine and vinegar on the wounds (antiseptics). They learned to drain the lungs of people with pneumonia and remove spears.
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What is the story of Plutus?
Plutus was a blind man who was given his sight back by Asclepius and his daughters when Asclepius' snake licked his eyes.
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When did Ancient Rome begin and what happened the Greek civilisations?
The Romans conquered most of Europe from around 500BC and, when they conquered Greece, they took over Greek medical ideas and many of their doctors and scientists were Greek. They even adopted the Greek God of Healing, Asclepius
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What were the Ancient Roman values?
They wanted their soldiers to be healthy so they could go on to conquer more land so only cared about how to cure disease not what caused it (what the Greeks focused on)
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Who were the healers in Ancient Rome?
Doctors, physicians and women (as midwives)
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How did the Romans develop on Greek ideas?
Galen improved on Hippocrates Theory of the Four Humours
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Who was Claudius Galen?
A greek physician who went to Rome and revived the ideas of Hippocrates and other Greek scientists. He became the emperors personal doctor and hence was protected by him.
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What did Galen emphasise the importance of?
Observation and recording and practical teaching, getting his students to do clinical work.
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What was Galen's Theory of Opposites?
A development on the theory of the four humours that if a patient had a fever (linked to yellow bile through the connecting elements of summer and fire - both hot) he should be treated with something cold.
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How did Galen develop the knowledge of the human body?
Publicly dissecting apes, pigs and other animals that were similar to humans
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Why couldn't Galen dissect humans?
It was illegal in parts of the Roman Empire.
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What did Galen believe about the circulation of blood?
That it passed through invisible holes in the septum of the heart to go around the body. Also, that it was used up during exercise and made again in the liver.
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What did Galen learn about the nervous system and how?
By dissecting a pig (that was alive) to show that the heart didn't control speech because when it was cut the pig continued to squeal. He also looked at the spinal chord of the pig.
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How did people treat illness in Ancient Rome?
Natural: blood letting, purging, warming/cooling, exercise to strengthen the weak, singing to strengthen weak lungs (asthma)
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Why did public health improve in Roman towns?
Roman soldiers needed to be healthy to fight and win wars so they made sure the town was clean so soldiers would be fit to fight. They also understood that dirty water caused disease.
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How did public health improve in Roman towns?
Aqueducts carried fresh water to towns from reservoirs, sewers carried away waste, public bath houses kept people clean, public fountains meant that people could get fresh water easily. Public latrines were also available.
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What were some problems with public health in Ancient Rome?
The pipes that carried fresh water were made of lead so gave some people lead poisoning, public bath houses weren't regularly cleaned so you were bathing in other people's filth and waste built up in the sewers if there wasn't enough waste.
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What advances were made in surgery?
Equipment was kept clean and tidy and they used opium as an anaesthetic and turpentine as an antiseptic.
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What is an example of continuity in surgery in Roman medicine?
Doctors focused on surgery outside the body so became good at amputation but did not develop surgery inside the body.
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What was the impact on the collapse of the Roman Empire on medieval (same as middle ages) medicine?
The war had destroyed many of their incredible advances in public health as only books remained, which were both destroyed and in Greek which was rarely known as people spoke Latin. The Medieval period began in around 400AD.
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What was the impact on Christianity on medieval medicine?
People couldn't question Galen's ideas as they were protected by the Christian Church and if you questioned Galen you questioned the bible so got thrown in jail. The Church also ran universities so students couldn't develop disease.
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Why did the Christian Church support Galen's ideas?
He said that the body was so complex that it had to have been made by a higher power like God because man couldn't have developed it.
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What was occurring in the Islamic world?
The Islamic religion was promoting enquiry about disease and encouraged people to develop their knowledge. One example of enquiry was the large hospitals in every town with an abundance of doctors.
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Who was Al-Razi?
An Islamic philosopher who developed the main pillars of medicine: public health, treatments and preservation of health. He wrote over 200 books and even discovered the difference between smallpox and measles.
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Who was Ibn Sina?
An Islamic philosopher who promoted people to develop their knowledge. He wrote a medical encyclopaedia called "The Canon."
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Who was Ibn Al-Nafis?
An Islamic philosopher who challenged Galen's ideas on the heart and believed in circulation (not that blood was used up).
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What did the Medieval civilisations believed caused disease?
Supernatural: punishment from god for sins, misalignment of planets and Devil's Helpers (elves and spirits) Natural: Theory of the Four Humours, miasma
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What was miasma?
Bad air. People had begun to link illness from rotting foods to the bad smell that rotting food produced.
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What is an example of continuity in the Middle Ages (same as Medieval period)?
They continued to explain cause of disease with both supernatural (gods) and natural (humours) ideas.
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What were some treatments in the Middle Ages?
Natural: herbal remedies from "herbals" (where they were now written down), bleeding, purging Supernatural: prayer (said alongside treatments)
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What was an alms house? Or a leper house?
Alms: hospital for poor people Leper: separate victims of leprosy from the healthy
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What developments were made in surgery?
John Bradmore, royal surgeon, developed device to remove arrow from the Prince of Wales' cheek. Surgeons could remove eye cataracts, bladder stones, ulcers and even small tumours. They continued to amputate limbs.
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Who were barber surgeons?
Skilled barbers that were quickly trained as surgeons during wars so that more people could be treated.
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Who were Roger of Solerno and Guy de Chauliac?
Surgeons. Salerno wrote the first book on surgery and Chauliac wrote a 7 volume book on surgery.
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What did doctors believe about pus?
That it carried away poisoned blood that caused infection - it was a good thing. It was originally a Greek idea but because Galen agreed with it, it was accepted.
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What were living conditions like in the Middle Ages?
They were much dirtier than Roman towns: water was collected from near cesspits, (human) waste was thrown onto the road and rats and other animals roamed the streets freely.
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How did living conditions start to improve?
Gong farmers were to be employed to collect waste thrown onto the streets and cesspits were beginning to become lined with stone to prevent leakage into a water supply.
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What was woman's role in medicine like during the Medieval period?
They acted as midwives and nuns worked in hospitals and provided herbal remedies. There were even some women surgeons who qualified through apprenticeships but it was largely based on family connections.
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How was illness diagnosed?
Urine charts: a patient would give a sample for a doctor to compare its colours, smell and even taste to a chart to show if they were ill! If their urine was white, for example, it showed an imbalance of phlegm.
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What were zodiac charts?
Linked to the theory that the misalignment of planets caused disease, zodiac charts showed a doctor when to avoid treating certain parts of the body due to the alignment of the moon with the signs of the zodiac.
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What were bleeding charts?
It showed a surgeon where to take blood from.
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When was the black death and what percent of the population died?
Reached England in 1348 and caused the death of 40% of the population.
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What did people believed caused the Black Death?
Supernatural: misalignment of planets, punishment from God for sin Natural: miasma, evil humours and water supplies poisoned by Jews
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How did people try to prevent or treat the Black Death?
Supernatural: whipping themselves so God wouldn't have to punish them, praying and attending extra church services Natural: cleaning the streets, burning Jews, opposites theory
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What were flagellants?
People who whipped themselves as they believed the black death was a punishment from God for sinning and if they punished themselves for their sins He wouldn't need to.
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When was the Renaissance and why was it named this?
The renaissance (1450-1700) means re-birth and the case of medicine means the re-birth of Greek ideas (like observation)
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Who was Andreas Vesalius?
An Italian surgeon who published the "Fabric of the Human Body"
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What did Vesalius do?
He proved that Galen had been wrong about anatomy and said that people must carry out human (not animal) dissections to see for themselves and to develop medicine
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How did Vesalius prove Galen wrong?
Showed that: the human jaw bone was one bone, not two (like Galen had said), that the breast bone is in 3 parts, not 7 (as Galen had said), blood does not flow through invisible holes in the septum (like Galen had said)
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What invention did Vesalius use?
The Printing Press
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What was Vesalius' book called and when was it published?
The Fabric of the Human Body - 1543
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Who was William Harvey?
A British scientists who studied circulation
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What did Harvey prove and how?
By dissecting animals and humans she built up a detailed knowledge of the heart and proved that the heart was a pump and pumped blood around the body. It wasn't used up and made in the liver like Galen had said.
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What else did Harvey discover and how?
That blood flowed in a one-way system - by trying to pump liquid past the valves in the veins.
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What invention may have assisted Harvey?
The water pump - like the heart.
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What was Harvey's book called and when was it published?
An Anatomical Account of the Motion of the Heart and Blood - 1628
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Who was Ambroise Paré?
A French war surgeon
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What did Paré develop an alternative to and how?
Having run out of cauterising oil, Paré made an ointment to put on gunshot wounds out of egg yolk, rose oil and turpentine (that the Greeks had used as an antiseptic). He waited overnight and by CHANCE the ointment had worked, there was no infection
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What else did Paré develop?
Catgut ligatures to sew wounds shut and prosthetics to help soldiers that had lost wounds during the war.
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What were some problems with Paré's discoveries?
Stopping bleeding with ligatures was slow and the thread could carry infection deep into the bone, causing death.
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What allowed Paré to develop his ideas?
War. He could easily develop and test new and better techniques on his patients.
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What were Paré's books called?
Ten Book on Surgery and Apology and Treatise
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Who was Anthony von Leeuwenhoek?
He created the first microscope in the 1600s allowing people to see the 'animacules' we now know as germs. This allowed people to develop the theory that they 'spontaneously generated' when food started rotting and then spread disease.
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What did people believed caused disease in Renaissance medicine?
Supernatural: god, luck/misfortune Natural: miasma, theory of the four humours
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What treatments were used?
Opium was used as an anaesthetic, rhubarb as a purgent, bezoar stone to 'cure' all poisons, tobacco as a 'cure-all' and a good diet and exercise. Even the touch of King Charles II to cure scrofula.
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What was used to treat malaria?
Quinine - the bark of cinchona trees
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How did Harvey prove the Bezoar Stone was ineffective?
He gave a cook, who was sentenced to death for stealing, the option of taking a poison and seeing if the Bezoar stone cured it. The poison was given, then the Bezoar stone and the cook died.
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Who treated disease in the Renaissance?
Women (only some) as midwives, doctors, physicians and quacks
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Who was Peter Chamberlen and why did his invention reduce the role of women in medicine?
He invented the obstetrical forceps but said that only a doctor (there were no female doctors so basically saying only a man) should operate them as they had been to university.
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What were quacks?
Untrained physicians that sold potions and fake cures to gain money. Rarely resulted in a cure.
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Who was Johanna Stevens?
A Quack who claimed she had a treatment that could dissolve bladder stones so there was no need for surgery. The government offered her £5000 for her remedy.
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What were apothecaries?
Like pharmacists, they sold herbs and herbal remedies.
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How had the medical profession grown?
There were now doctors, surgeons, specialist physicians, quacks, apothecaries and midwives
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What was smallpox and when did it hit?
A disease that killed many people in the 1700s
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What was inoculation?
A treatment for smallpox that involved taking a small amount of blood from a smallpox victim to give to someone who didn't have smallpox. They believed using only a small amount of blood would make them immune and not give them the disease.
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What was the problem with inoculation?
They could get a mild dose and become immune or they could get a larger dose and get full-blown small pox.
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Who was Edward Jenner?
He developed the vaccination for smallpox.
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What did Jenner observe?
That milkmaids who got cowpox never got smallpox. This gave him the theory of vaccination: giving people cowpox to prevent getting smallpox.
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How did Jenner test his theory?
He got a volunteer who had't had cowpox or smallpox, named James Phipps. Jenner game Phipps the blood of a milkmaid with cowpox, he got cowpox and was ill before recovering. Jenner gave him the blood of someone with smallpox, he didn't get smallpox.
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In what and when did Jenner publish his results?
In 1798 in his book.
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What was formed in 1866 against vaccination?
The Anti-Vaccination league
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Why did people appose vaccination?
Jenner couldn't explain why it worked and it didn't always work either (vaccinators didn't perform the procedure correctly). Jenner was also a country doctor so people didn't trust him.
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What is laissez-faire and why did people use this as an argument against vaccination?
The idea that the government shouldn't interfere with peoples' lives and would be doing so by making vaccination compulsory.
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Who supported Jenner's work?
The USA, where vaccination was being used by the 1800s, and Napoleon who, in 1805, had the entire French army vaccinated.
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What happened in support of vaccination in 1852?
The government made vaccination compulsory, causing cases of smallpox to drop rapidly.
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In response, what occurred in 1887?
The Anti-Vaccine league said that parents should be able to refuse for their children to be vaccinated.
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What did people believed caused disease in the Industrial Revolution?
1800s: miasma, spontaneous generation of 'animacules' and (though not as commonly) God
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What did Joseph Lister develop in the 1800s?
A more powerful microscope allowing people to see the 'animacules' we now know as germs. This allowed people to develop the theory that they 'spontaneously generated' when food started rotting and then spread disease.
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Who was Louis Pasteur?
A French scientist that developed the germ theory.
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What technique did Louis Pasteur pioneer?
Pasteurisation: boiling a liquid to kill bacteria (or 'animacules')
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How did Louis Pasteur develop pasteurisation?
He was asked by the alcohol industry to see why their alcohol kept going sour. Pasteur studied the sour alcohol and a non-sour alcohol under a microscope and discovered that the sour alcohol had a differently shaped micro-organism making it sour.
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How could the micro-organism making the alcohol sour be killed?
Gently heating the liquids - pasteurisation.
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What did Pasteur do as a result of this?
He was convinced that the organisms making the alcohol go sour could also cause disease so he went to the Emperor of France who paid for his research and laboratory to carry out his tests.
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What happened in 1864?
Louis Pasteur proved his Germ Theory - that germs caused decay and were not caused by decay.
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How did Louis Pasteur explain vaccination?
Having discovered the bacterium for chicken cholera, Pasteur instructed his research assistant Chamberland to inoculate some chickens. Chamberlain forgot, went on holiday and inoculated the chickens weeks later, expecting them to die but they didn't.
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What did Pastuer do next?
He gave the chickens some fresh cholera germs but again the chickens didn't die. He gave the same germs to different chickens and they died.
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What did this prove?
He determined that the first inoculation had been to weak to kill the chickens but had protected them against fresh germs, just like Jenner's vaccine.
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What did Pasteur do in light of this knowledge?
Created more vaccines like a vaccine for anthrax. He gave a public experiment and spread the idea around Europe.
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Who was Robert Koch?
A German bacteriologist.
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What did Koch discover in 1873 and what did this mean?
The specific bacterium for anthrax. It was the final proof for Louis Pasteur's germ theory.
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What did Koch develop in 1878?
A way of staining bacteria so they could be photographed for record. He could also grow bacteria on potatoes making them easier to see. He did this with the septicaemia bacterium.
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What did Koch discover in 1881?
The bacterium causing tuberculosis and a way of staining the bacteria that was causing disease.
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What was surgery like in the early 1800s?
Very fast: there were no effective anaesthetics and they didn't understand the importance of aseptic techniques (using antiseptics) until Pasteur published his germ theory in 1864
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What developments had been made in surgery in the Industrial Revolution?
Anaesthetics and Anti-septic
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Who was James Simpson?
A Scottish professor who developed the use of chloroform as an anaesthetic in 1847
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What was chloroform an alternative to?
Laughing gas (didn't make people completely unconscious) and ether (caused sickness and was very flammable)
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Who was Horace Wells?
A dentist that did a public demonstration using laughing gas and his patient was in agony - showed the need for better anaesthetics.
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What was the opposition to chloroform?
In 1848 Hannah Greener died from chloroform and in illness and even childbirth, there should be pain otherwise it would be unnatural and go against God
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What happened in 1857 and what did this mean?
Queen Victoria used chloroform when delivering her 8th child - opposition to chloroform was overcome.
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Who was Ignaz Semmelweiss?
A doctor on a maternity ward in Vienna that introduced hand washing!
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What happened in 1847?
Ignaz Semmelweiss introduced a hand washing policy on his maternity ward that reduced the death rate of both the mother and baby.
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Who was Joseph Lister?
A scientist that introduced aseptic surgery
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What did Lister observe?
That carbolic surgery killed parasites in the sewers so it should kill bacteria in the body
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How did he test this idea?
He put carbolic acid on open wounds and they didn't develop gangrene which was common.
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Why did people oppose carbolic acid?
It was a costly and timely process that people often didn't do correctly so it didn't work. It also cracked your skin and smelt horrible.
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What law in 18 hindered woman's role in medicine?
All doctors needed to belong to the College of Physicians, Surgeons or Apothecaries
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Who was Elizabeth Garrett Anderson?
The first women to qualify as a doctor in Britain
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How did Garrett qualify as a doctor in Britain?
She attended lectures at the Middlesex Hospital and passed all the exams to qualify the doctors. After being declined from all the colleges, the last step to becoming a doctor, she took the College of Apothecaries to court and she was accepted.
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What happened in 1876?
A law passed opening all medical qualifications to women.
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What were hospitals like in the Industrial Revolution?
Small, cramped, dirty and connected to a poor sewer system.
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Who was Florence Nightingale?
A nurse in the Crimean War that developed public hygiene in hospitals and invented the pie chart!
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How did Florence Nightingale improve public health?
She concentrated on cleaning the hospital and patients and the death rate fell to 2%
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Who was Mary Seacole?
A Jamaican healer and midwife
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How did Mary Seacole help?
She treated the sick and injured on the battlefield and set up the 'British Hotel' to feed the soldiers.
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Why was Mary Seattle more effective than Florence Nightingale?
She fought her own way their and built a hospital from her own money. She also treated victims on the front lines.
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How did Seacole and Nightingale improve hospitals?
Identified the need for cleanliness and professionalism
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What was different about the start of 20th Century medicine to other eras?
They knew about Germ Theory from the Industrial Revolution thanks to Pastuer in 1864.
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What treatments were developed in light of the Germ Theory (before antibiotics)?
Magic Bullets
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Who developed the first magic bullet? What was it called and why?
Paul Ehrlich on his 606th test of Salvarsan. This gave the name Salvarsan 606.
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What did Salvarsan 606 treat? How?
Syphilis. It contained sulphonamide that we now know cures some diseases.
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What was the second magic bullet and what did it do? Who developed it?
Gerhard Domagk developed Prontosil that cured blood poisoning.
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Why didn't magic bullets cure all infections? What is an bacteria is an example of this and what did this lead to?
Some germs were not killed by sulphonamides. For example, it didn't kill the staphylococci bacteria that caused deeper infections. Fleming went on to research this, which led to...
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Who was Alexander Fleming and what did he do?
A British scientist that discovered the use of the bacteria penicillium as an antibiotic in 1928.
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How did Fleming discover penicillin?
By CHANCE (key factor!) he left some petri dishes containing bacteria on them and a window open. When he returned he noticed mould on one of the dishes - the bacteria had disappeared.
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Why was Fleming not able to improve on his work with penicillin?
People didn't think it was important and was refused funding from the government.
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Who were Florey and Chain? How did they manage to get funding to produce penicillin for use as an antibiotic?
Colleagues who realised the benefits of Fleming's penicillin. Having only been granted £25 for research on penicillin by the UK government, they went to America and were given enough funding to pay for 5 years research.
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How did Florey and Chain test penicillin? What did this prove? What was a disadvantage of their test subjects?
Using it on mice, which proved it cured infection. However, they would need 3000x as much for a human and they had no facilities to mass produce it.
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When, and on who, did Florey and Chain test penicillin on?
In 1941, they tested penicillin on a policeman (Albert Alexander) with septicaemia. It began to work and he got better but after 5 days the penicillin ran out so he died.
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What did this experiment prove and cause?
That penicillin could cure disease. It meant that the US (and UK) government saw the benefits of developing it: they offered interest-free loans to factories allowing them to buy the equipment needed to mass produce penicillin.
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Who treated illness in the 20th Century?
Doctors, surgeons, nurses, mid wives etc...
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Why was there an increase in the numbers of doctors and nurses etc in the late 1940s?
In 1948 the NHS was set up by Aneurin Bevan so there was a higher demand for doctors/surgeons etc as more hospitals were being set up.
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What led to the development of the NHS?
A report by William Beveridge (the Beveridge Report) that suggested that, to improve people's lives after the war, they needed to set up an NHS for free healthcare and make everyone pay National Insurance out of their wages to cover benefits.
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What did people learn about the human body in the 20th Century?
In 1901, Karl Landsteiner discovered blood groups, which allowed people to transfuse blood
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What technological advances in the 20th Century made advances in medicine?
In 1895, Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-Rays and within months they were being used in hospitals all over the world.
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What did Marie Curie and Pierre Curie do with this knowledge?
They researched radiotherapy: using radiation to cure cancer. They used X-Rays and, in this process discovered, radium, which is now used to diagnose and treat cancer.
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Why was surgery able to improve in the 20th century? Who developed this?
Anaesthetics that could injected into the blood stream were developed by Helmuth Wesse, which could be controlled more precisely. This meant longer, more dangerous, procedures could be carried out.
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What new form of surgery was pioneered during the first world war and why? Who is an example of this?
Plastic surgery because soldiers burned skin that left horrible skin and needed fixing with skin grafts. One surgeon, Archibald McIndoe, carried out over 400+ operations on burn cases.
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What occurred in 1967? What did this lead to?
Dr Christiaan Barnard carried out the first heart transplant. More adventurous surgery like lung transplants and bone marrow transplants.
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Due to the improvement in technology in the late 20th century, what improvements were made in surgery?
Minimally-invasive surgery (key hole or microsurgery) pioneered.
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Card 2


What were the main values and consequential problems for prehistoric civilisations?


They were constantly fighting for land and strong women to carry their children. They were often hurt fighting so began to develop treatments that would heal injuries so there would be more men for hunting. Many women died from child birth.

Card 3


What was common for prehistoric civilisations?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What problems arose from th prehistoric civilisations?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What did prehistoric people believed caused disease?


Preview of the front of card 5
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