Medicine Through Time

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What did Harvey do?
He discovered that the heart acts as a pump, circulating the same blood all the time. He showed that the blood pumped blood through arteries and the blood returned to the heart through the veins. As well as this he kept detailed notes
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What did Pare do?
Before Pare surgery was brutal. Pare discovered that using boiling oil on a wound wasnt sufficient. He created a soothing ointment made of turpintine, rose oil and egg yolks which he used to treat wounds.
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What else did Pare do?
He used silk thread called ligatures to tie around blood vessels to stop them from bleeding. As well as this h designed prosthetic limbs for wounded soldiers.
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What did Vesalius do?
He created the first fully illustrated textbook. Challenged Galen and found mistakes. He found that the lower jawbone in a human is in one part and not two. Also that the kidneys are not located on top of each other as in a dog. Book in 1543
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What did Semmelweiss do?
He saw that many woman died after giving birth. This was because surgeons operated on a person with a disease or infection and then delivered a baby straight after passing on the germs to the mother causing death, because of not washing hands.
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What else did Semmelweiss do?
He ordered doctors to wash their hands in a solution of chloride of lime, an effective antispectic which killed bacteria. From this the death rate dropped, but because he couldnt prove this untill germ theory and death rates risen when he left.
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What did Joseph Lister do?
He read Pasteurs work on the germ theory and developed the use of carbolic acid to kill germs. He soaked his instruments and dressings in it and used carbolic acid in spray for in theatre. Cut the death rate from 46% to 15%
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Opposition to Lister and antiseptics.
Using antiseptics took to much time and was unpleasant to use. Doctors and surgeons thought it was unnecessary.
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Anasthetics
Doctors couldnt perform detailed surgery until they had an effective anasthetic. Davy in 18th Century carried out experiments on gases. He found that nitrous oxide was a pain killer. He called it laughing gas. 40 years later it was used successfully.
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Anasthetics 2.
The second gas tried was ether. Although it was sucessfully used by John Warren 1846, it was unpleasant, flammable and irritated patients lungs. Break through in 1847 Simpson discovered chloroform.
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Opposition to anasthetics.
Religious groups felt that pain was sent by God and should be suffered. Worry about the correct dosage, as women, men and children needed different quantities resulting in some deaths. Made difference to operations.
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What did Galen do?
Galen performed many public dissections on apes, pigs and dogs. He demonstrated how different nerves controlled pain, movement and the vocal cords. Discovered that the brain not the heart controlled speech. Anatomies of animals are different to human
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Galens work (2)
He said that the lower human jaw bone was made up of two parts but its made of one, that the kidneys were one top of each other but are next to each other, that the heart is a machine and blood is its fuel, these was all wrong. These was challenged.
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What did Koch do?
Using his new methods he was able to identify the germ that caused tuburculosis. Othe scientists began using his methods and soon found the germs that caused typhoid, diptheria and pneumonia.
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Card 2

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What did Pare do?

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Before Pare surgery was brutal. Pare discovered that using boiling oil on a wound wasnt sufficient. He created a soothing ointment made of turpintine, rose oil and egg yolks which he used to treat wounds.

Card 3

Front

What else did Pare do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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What did Vesalius do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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What did Semmelweiss do?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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