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Who is Hippocrates?
A Greek doctor used by Romans. He thought illness was caused by the theroy of the four humours
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Who is Galen?
Claudius Galen was a Greek doctor. He discovered the opposite theory and the brain controlled speech. His ideas were approved by the church because they were superstitious
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What is the theory of opposites?
You need to balance the humours to prevent you from being ill. E.g. If you had too much phlegm you needed something hot and dry to bring this humour back into balance.
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What are Roman Treatments?
They used: Bloodletting, trephening, purging, amputation and praying.
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What are Roman Natuaral Remedies?
Change of diet, do more exercise, have herbs and plants, purge and use opium
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Why was health not good in the Roman Times?
Becuase they spent too much time fining new ideas when it was too late. They first started with medicine.
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Why was training not necessary in the Roman Times?
Becuase they had books to read and also did apprenticeships with doctors. Then after studying a little they would open up a business and hope for the best.
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What was Roman Public Health?
Avoiding the spread of disease within a paticular society often to provide water to the sick and to keep them clean because they believed dirty conditions made people ill.
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What was public health in the Roman period like?
They had aquaducts (a clean water source), public baths (to keep clean), sewers and latrines (after going to the toilet the sewers washed the waste away) and healthy lifestyles because they belived keeping fit prevented people from being ill.
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Why did people belive in superstitious ideas?
Because the church approved of them and the church was in power at the time.
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What cause the Black Death?
God & Devil, invisible fumes or poision in the air, astrlogy and the four humours being out of balance.
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What are the main causes of the Black Death:
Rats & fleas, poor medical knowledge and poor public health.
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What were the symptoms of the Black Death?
1. Feirce swellings 2. Vomiting blood & coughing 3. Dark bruised blotches on the skin 4. Shaking uncontrollably 5. You either die or God would show mercy andsave you from dying.
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What were some natural cures for the Black Death?
Drink vinegar & mercury, pop your buboes, keep the air moving by ringing bells, tiding rubbish on the streets and carrying herbs & spices to smell nice.
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What were some supernatural cures for the Black Death?
Kill cats & dogs, light candles as an offering to god, if cold light fires but if cold eat cold foods and drink cold drinks and asking god for forgiveness by whipping your self (flagellants)
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Why was religion a big part in the middle ages?
They believed god would cure you from illness. And if you had good deeds god would spare you from illness and death. They asked god to forgive them for the bad sins they had done.
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What was training like in the middle ages?
You had to have qualifications to be a doctor and doctors weren't cheap because people had to pay for treatment. The church approved of Galens ideas because they believed in the soul.
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What is a trained physian?
They have loads of medical knowledge and used urine charts & astrology most of the work was inspired by Galen. They also did bloodletting and purging. But they were't very popular because they were expensive.
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What is an apothecary?
They mix herbs and only make herbal remedies. They don't have much medical knowledgebut are good enough. You had to pay see them but were popular at the time.
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What did doctors learn about treatment?
They got most of their ideas from books in university and didn't say Galen's ideas were wrong. Hippocrates was better than Galen, most believed.
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Information about hospitals...
The poor and the needy go to the hospital and most hospitals were ran by the church. Nuns and preists looked after the patients.
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Information about the leper hospitals...
Victims with leprosy visited there and it was ran by the church. There was no cure only meals and a bed as treatment.
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Information about the alms houses...
The elderly, pregnant and weak went there It was ran by the church and herbal remedies that the priest might know were used. But there were no medical treatments
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Information about the monastries...
Only the beggars, disabled, poor pilgrams and monks went there. They were ran byt the church and they got leftover food and herbal remedies were their treatments. They had books by the greeks and Romans to read.
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Who is William Harvey?
He discovered the heart was a pump and pumped blood around the body. He encouraged dissections on animals and proved his discovery by dissecting animals & did illustrations.
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Who is vesalius?
He carried out dissections to get a better look of the body and made a book called 'Fabric of the Human Body'. He did sketchs of the anatomy. But the church did not approve of his ideas because he went against them and were not traditional.
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What caused the plague in 1665?
Astrology, Filthy Towns, Hot Summers, Bad Hygiene, Miasma and cats & dogs.
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What were natural cures for the plague?
Clean streets, staying away from people that have the plague. But prevention didn't work.
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What was one prevention that they used to stop the plague?
Watchmen looked after houses that were infected, public places were closed and they didn't let neighbours got to the funerals.
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What developments were made in the Renaissance time?
Most peole stopped believing in the church, the printing press was invented, microsopes were invented, Vesalius solved 200 mistakes and Harvey learnt how the heart pumped blood around the body by looking at a mechanical pump.
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What were conditions like in the industrial Revolution?
Cramped, contaminated, polluted, dark and they had open sewers.
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How was cholera caused?
People believed in the spontaneous generation, rotting flesh & germs and dirty water.
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What are some chlorea treatments ?
Burn clothes & bedding of the person, clean the streets, people still used supernatural treatments and the goverenment finally invested becasue so many people had died.
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What was chlorea?
It was a water born germ and contaminated water. It arrived in 1831 and was gone by 1832.
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Who was Edwin Chadwick?
He worked for the Goverenment and was asked to undergo an investigation in the town about the conditions of the out breaks of chlorea. He wrote a report on sanitary conditions and he gave out free copies of the report.
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What was on Edwin Chadwick's report?
How to keep the town and peoples house sanitary for example he said that 'a medical officer should be appointed to take charge in each district, need clean water to have clean habits, improve drainage and have a clean water supply.
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What didn't change after Chadwicks report?
People still believed in the spontaneous generation, miasma, goverenment was still lassiez faire and cleaning was still compulsary after the public health act.
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Had public health improved by 1850?
No, people still believed in miasma that bad germswere in the air but it had imporved a little bit because of John Snow.
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Who was John Snow?
He found evidence to prove that the pump on broad street was causing death and that dirty water caused chlorea.
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Who was John Bazalgette?
He was hired to build sewers. He began to plan in 1858 when he was given £3 million fund and finished in 1866. He used powerful pumps which pushed sewage along the pipes & into the sea.
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What was 'The Great Stink'?
In the summer of 1858 a heat wave caused filthy River Thames to smell. Loads was dumped into the river like dead people, animals, rubbish and sewage too.
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Why was vaccinations so popular?
In 1853 the goverenment insisted that every baby must have a vaccine against small pox. Death rates from small pox soon dropped dramatically.
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Who was Edward Jenner?
He invented the first vaccine and stopped small pox. It saved many lives but some didn't approve of the vaccine.
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Why was vaccination important?
It cured small pox, wipped out disease and more others can be invented to cure other diseases
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What was the Germ Theory?
Louis Pasture proved that some diseases were caused by microorganisms while researching why beer was going off.
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Card 2


Who is Galen?


Claudius Galen was a Greek doctor. He discovered the opposite theory and the brain controlled speech. His ideas were approved by the church because they were superstitious

Card 3


What is the theory of opposites?


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Card 4


What are Roman Treatments?


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Card 5


What are Roman Natuaral Remedies?


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