Media Theory

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Levi-Strauss (Narrative) Binary Opposites. Think of how main characters may oppose each other.
Dominant characters who appear in opposition.
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Todorov (Narrative) 4 Act Structure. Texts opens with an equilibrium or sense of normality. A disruption occurs to change this normality. A resolution is reached and a new equilibrium established
Think about the order the events may occur, how the equilibrium is established, what the disruption might be and whether the resolution is reached.
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Propp 8 Character roles: Hero, Villain, Donor, Helper, Princess, Her Father, mentor and False Hero
Can apply all 8 to Lego Movie. Some can be applied to other texts we have studied
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Lyotard (Narrative) Meta Narratives and micro narratives. Are your texts about big world events or personal journeys? Or both?
Texts like Lego Movie and Looper include bigger themes whereas Y Gywll and GBBO focus on character evolution and personal challenges.
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Vogler (Narrative) 12 Stages of the hero’s journey. Includes the call to adventure, refusal of the call, meeting the mentor and ordeal, death & rebirth
Questions on characters would benefit from some discussion on this theory. Lego works best.
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Fiske (Genre) Genre as convenience for producer and audience
Useful for discussion of generic texts (eg Lego Movie). Gives a good starting point and enables a point of comparison with less conventional texts.
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Jenkins (Genre) Genre constantly breaks rules and involves hybridization
All film and TV texts could be considered here as it could be argued that hybridization has become the norm
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Hartley (Genre) Genre is interpreted culturally
Some of our studied texts have had global success, others more locally. Explain how Y Gwyll for example was originally made for a welsh audience and how this might deepen their understanding. Can you apply this to GBBO?
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Chandler (Genre) Genre is too restricting
Some texts have limited appeal due to pre-existing notions of genre. Many texts will try to exploit several genres. This might include Derek, GBBO and Y Gwyll limiting their appeal through restricted genres
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Neale (Genre) Genre as repetition and difference
Texts might show a repertoire of elements typical of their genre which the audience might expect. Are these expectations fulfilled or subverted?
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Buckingham (Genre) Genre in constant process of negotiation and change
Texts must respond to cultural and social change. Genres like superhero have cycles of popularity which producers will exploit. Think about how Y Gwyll is exploiting the current trend of foreign language crime drama.
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Mittel (Genre) Industry uses genre commercially.
Take a look at the promotional material for each of the TV and film texts we have studied. How do these ‘sell’ the genre to the audience?
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Tunstall (Audience) Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Audience Engagement
Traditionally, film requires a primary level of engagement, TV a secondary and advertising a third. Think about how our texts might encourage further participation via social media for example
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Blumler and Katz (Audience) Uses and gratifications
Why do audiences consume texts? Diversion or escapism, surveillance and information gathering, to form personal relationships and to create personal identity
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Katz and Larzasfeld (Audience) Two-step flow
In particular, think about how our advertising campaigns have used social media and the internet to try and encourage opinion leaders to share thoughts about brands
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Adorno (Audience) Hypodermic Model
Passive consumption, the idea that audiences act upon what they see. Useful to support discussion of BBFC ratings and ASA adjudications
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Guntlett (Audience) Producer as consumer (prosumer)
Lynx campaign use audience participation. Stars in GBBO are part of the production. Meme-like quality of Coke campaign and requests to share your #reasonstobelieve
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Hall (Audience) Dominant, Oppositional and Negotiated readings
In all texts, think about the different ways in which audiences can interpret meaning
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Cohen (Audience) Moral Panics
Looper plays upon the anxiety of the prevalence of new technology
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McRobbie (Representation) Post-Feminist Icon Theory
Sara in Looper is a good example of a post-feminist icon. As is Wyldestyle in Lego Movie. Think about how women are portrayed in all texts studied
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Mulvey (Representation) Male Gaze/Female Gaze
How are men and women used as voyeuristic pleasures in the texts we studied?
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Dyer (Representation) Stereotypes legitimize inequality
Stereotypes are so prevalent that they become the norm. Mary Berry’s role in GBBO is notable here
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Levi-Strauss (Representation) Stereotypes are often placed in binary opposition to ensure dominant culture is maintained
Think about the placement of Paul Hollywood next to Mary Berry for example and Joe and his parents in Pride.
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Baudrillard (Representation) Hyper-Reality
Lego Movie and Looper play with the idea of reality and simulated reality.
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Medhurst (Representation) Stereotyping is shorthand for identification
Quick judgments need to made for shorter texts such as adverts to make sense. Stereotypes are used as a visual shorthand – notably Derek
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Perkins (Representation) Stereotypes have elements of truth
Stereotypes are recognizable in order for the audience to make judegments. Often based in history, audiences accept stereotypes as part of the text and producers can later subvert these beliefs. Notable examples are the older ladies in Pride
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Butler (Representation) Queer Theory
Gender is what you do not who you are. Think about representations of women that appear masculine and representations of men that appear feminine. GBBO has some good examples here.
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Card 2

Front

Think about the order the events may occur, how the equilibrium is established, what the disruption might be and whether the resolution is reached.

Back

Todorov (Narrative) 4 Act Structure. Texts opens with an equilibrium or sense of normality. A disruption occurs to change this normality. A resolution is reached and a new equilibrium established

Card 3

Front

Can apply all 8 to Lego Movie. Some can be applied to other texts we have studied

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Texts like Lego Movie and Looper include bigger themes whereas Y Gywll and GBBO focus on character evolution and personal challenges.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Questions on characters would benefit from some discussion on this theory. Lego works best.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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