Media Research

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Mares (1990)
Found behavioural effects for pro-social messages: Alturism, Self Control, Positive Interaction
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Sprafkin et al. (1975)
Young children who watched an episode of Lassie where a dog was rescued showed more alturistic behaviour than those who had watched a neutral programme
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Friedrich and Stein (1973)
Children who had watched an episode of Mr Rogers' Neighbourhood showed more task persistence and obdience than those who watched aggressive cartoons such as Batman
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Frederick and Stein
Observers watched children at play, counting the no. of aggressive acts. Those who had watched a prosocial programme behaved more positively towards each other
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Huesmann and Moise (1996)
Suggested five ways that exposure to media violence might lead to aggression in children: observational learning, cognitive priming, densensitisation, justification and lowered physiological arousal
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Bobo doll study: Children watched a video of adults hitting the bobo doll, and then replicated the behaviour themselves. Supports observational learning.
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Cumberbatch (2001)
The murder of James Bulger is argued to support observational learning as the killing is said to be inspired by the video Child's Play - however Cumberbatch reports that no known link was found. Undermines observational learning.
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Joesphson (1987)
Hockey players were deliberately frustrated and then shown either a violent or nonviolent film where an actor held a walkie talkie. A walkie talkie used by the referee in the game acted as aggressive cue for boys' who'd seen the violent film. CP
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Cumberbatch (2001)
Argues that poeple might 'get used to' on-screen violence, but this does not mean they also will in real life. He claims screen violence is more likely to make children 'frightened' than 'frightening'
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Zillmann (1988)
The excitation transfer model sugests that arousal creates a readiness to aggress if there are appropriate circumstances. Support for lowered physiological arousal.
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Feshbach and Singer (1971)
Believe that watching violence has beneficial, cathartic effects - arousal allows one to release pent-up aggressive engeries.
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Liss and Reinhardt (1979)
Suggest that the negative effects of anti-socal tv support the concept of justification. The use of aggression by prosocial characters creates an aura of moral justification to their violence, with which children readily identify
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Karpinksi (2009)
There is a relationship between excessive facebook use and lower grades in college students. Students who used facebook everyday underachieved by as much as an entire grade compared to those who don't use it
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Criticism of Karpinksi
Her study does not show a direct cause and effect between facebook and lower grades, just a relationship. Other factors (such as a proneness to being distracted) may be involved.
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Kross et al. (2013)
Using Facebook can reduce a young person's self-esteem and their general satisfaction with life. The longer people that used Facebook, the worse they felt.
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Card 2


Sprafkin et al. (1975)


Young children who watched an episode of Lassie where a dog was rescued showed more alturistic behaviour than those who had watched a neutral programme

Card 3


Friedrich and Stein (1973)


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Card 4


Frederick and Stein


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Card 5


Huesmann and Moise (1996)


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