Media

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  • Created by: The Shrew
  • Created on: 14-05-15 10:19
What is Social Learning Theory?
Classical/ Operant conditioning- learning by association and reinforcement plus imitation of the behavior of role models
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What makes a successful role model?
Older, Respect, Same Sex
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How does Bandura's study show the effect of Media's pro-social influence?
Children imitate adult's gentle and calm behaviour with the bobo doll, especially if same gender
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In what way is Bandura's study valuable?
It is based on Skinner's theory/ lab study allows control
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In what way is Bandura's study methodologically weakened?
Lab study lack ecological validity
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What is the Stimulation Hypothesis?
Media allows potential for education and role models present pro-social solutions for everyday issues
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Johnston
Freestyle American tv- characters behave outside of stereotypes and are rewarded for pro-social behaviour
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How does Bandura's study demonstrate the effects of media on anti-social behaviour?
Children imitate aggressive and violent behavior towards the bobo doll
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Desensitization- Thomas et al
Two groups of boys exposed to violent video- those with more experience of violent media less physiologically aroused
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Cognitive Priming- Josephson et al
Canadian boys either watch motocross race or gun battle where snipers communicate via walkie-talkies- All play floor hockey- those given instructions with walkie-talkies and watched gun battle= most aggressive
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Stereotyping- Mann et al
Content analysis of children's tv- strong gender stereotyping- males more dynamic/ females more socio-intelligent with aesthetic quality
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Video Games- Anderson and Dill
Feelings of anger and physiological arousal/ increased aggressive thoughts/ appraisal process- violence most effective and appropriate response
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Video games reinforce:
Hostile Expectation Bias/ Stereotypes/ Watchfulness for enemies
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Jansz and Martis
12 recent video games- females appear just as often as males- overly sexualized and all white!
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Cognitive Priming- Anderson and Bushman
Meta analysis of games- situational cues associated with aggression and exposure causes physiological arousal
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Hostile Expectation Bias- Anderson and Bushman
Ps told story of man stuck in traffic- asked to predict subsequent actions- those exposed to violent game expected more aggression
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Gentile and Anderson
Help education/ learning/ socialization
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Durkin et al
Avoidance can lead to social iscolation
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Unsworth et al
Quake II- majority of ps showed no increased anger after playing
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Expertise of communicator
Janice and Kelley- People more persuaded by prestigious journal rather than magazine
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Trustworthiness
People willing to accept information that is self serving- otherwise more scrutiny over trustworthiness of communicator
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Celebrity
Chaiken and Eagle- more persuaded my celebrity
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2- sided argument
American soldiers told war in Japan would last 2 years- 2-sided argument= more belief
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Emotive
Anti-cigarette add more successful with more emotion
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Need for Cognition
High need for cognition- more persuaded by strongly worded argument than low need
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Sex
More persuaded if topic is more familiar to the gender of the speaker
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Self Esteem
Little effect- high self esteem much less likely to admit to attitude change
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Central route
Direct/ Most effective/ Quality of message most important/ High need for cognition/ Recipient's motivation and ability high
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Peripheral route
Indirect/ Source of message important/ recipient motivation and ability low/ low need for cognition
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Petty et al
Students told of new exam system either next year or in 2 years- central route-quality of message most important/ peripheral- source of message
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Bohner
Shampoo ad- peripheral route- attractiveness of model associated with shampoo- increased motivation to attend messgae
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Petty et al
Increase in tuition fees- either 2 year investigation resulting in higher salaries or better lighting- better quality message= more attitude change
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What is the hypodermic effect explanation?
Tv can make us do whatever they want/ audiences passive recipients that are easily manipulated/ conformity
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Asch
1 p with 7 confederates- which line is the same length as the original- obvious answer/ 75% conformed at least once/ less than 1% actually got wrong when tested alone
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How is Asch's study methodologically evaluated?
Lab study- high control/ lacks ecological validity
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What is the Uses and Gratification Theory- Fiske?
Tv used for own gratification: Escape/ Social Interaction/ Identification/ to inform or educate/ Entertainment
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How does the importance of individual differences affect this research?
UK kept track of habits of 22,000 people- people use it for different reasons/ Hill et a- hard to operationalise effect of tv
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Why are adverts on tv hard to assess in terms of their success?
They're not only on tv- radio/ posters etc
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What is a Social Psychological Explanation of Celebrity Worship?
Derive pleasure from 'pretend' relationship/ less demanding than real relationship
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Thomson
Fulfils needs of normal relationship; relatedness, competence, sense of mastery and achievement, independence
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Giles and Maltby
People less established in real life/ low levels of security or closeness to others/ poor attachment with parents= Stronger Celebrity Worship
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Eyal and Cohen
Emotional intensity expressed at end of relationship linked to parasocial relationships- more upset by last episode of Friends/ More lonely and shy
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Cole and Leets
Resistant attachment type= most attraction/ Avoidant attachment type= least attraction
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Ross and Spinner
Variation in attachment types across relationships
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How does Trivers explain an Evolutionary approach to the attraction of celebrity?
Celebrities offer example of ideal mate- females invest more- psychological dimorphism- more wealth/ males- good childbirth- physical dimorphism- young/ attractive
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Buss
Females place more importance on wealth and status/ prefer older partner (av. 3.5yrs)
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Pawlowski and Dunbar
Females have more selection criteria/ more likely to withhold age- tendancy peaks 35-50
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How can the use of personal ads be evaluated
Large amount of accessible data/ ecological validity/ biased sample/ ethics
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Ackerman et al
People, especially women see celebrities as friends- preferred over strangers
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Moreland and Beach
Importance of exposure
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What is Erotomania?
Mental disorder- delusional- believes someone of higher status (celebrity) is in love with them and has made romantic advancements
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Kennedy et al
Characteristics: Single/ No full time job/ 75% female/ Other mental disorders/ members of family with mental disorders/ go on to become stalkers
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Reflection of personality characteristics
Extrovert- Entertainment/ Neurotic- Intense-personal/ Psychotic- Borderline pathological
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Jackson et al
When celebrity dies, worshippers go through bereavement similar to that of when a close family member dies
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Takeshita et al
Various cognitive defects and lack flexibility of thought
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Levy
Erotamania more common if fewer years education
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Navik et al
Don't have clear boundaries and fail to distinguish between thoughts and emotions
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Cupach and Spitzberg
Surveillance, Harassment, Intimidation, Aggression, Mediated Contacts
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Stalking stats
25% have experienced- mostly females/ lasts around 22 months/ 80%- victim knows stalker beforehand/ 50%- this was a romantic relationship
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Motives
Intimacy- 32%/ Aggression- 22%/ Disability based (drugs)-12%/ Issue based- 13%
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Lewis
More likely to have a insecure attachment
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Keinlen et al
most had lost parent in childhood/ many had lost relative just before starting to stalk
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Bartholomew and Horowitz
Identified 'pre-occupied' attachment- dependent on people's acceptance for sense of well-being/ idealise others/ incoherent and exaggerated emotion in discussing relationships
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What makes a successful role model?

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Older, Respect, Same Sex

Card 3

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How does Bandura's study show the effect of Media's pro-social influence?

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Card 4

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In what way is Bandura's study valuable?

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In what way is Bandura's study methodologically weakened?

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