Media: Topic 4

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  • Created by: Ashley2K
  • Created on: 09-06-17 15:53
Why do Almy et al. argue that media representations of gender are important?
They argue that media representations of gender are important because they enter the collective social conscience and reinforce culturally dominant (hegemonic) ideas about gender which represent males as dominant.
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How does Tunstall argue the media represents women?
Tunstall argues that the media emphasise women's domestic, sexual, consumer and marital activities to the exclusion of all else.
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How are working women portrayed in the media?
Working women are often portrayed as unfulfilled, unattractive, possibly unstable and unable to maintain relationships. It is also employed they neglect their children's emotional needs.
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What is Tuchman et al.'s concept of 'symbolic annihilation'?
Symbolic annihilation is the way in which women's achievements are often not reported, or are condemned or trivialized by the mass media.
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How does Wolf suggest the media uses images of women to represent women?
Wolf suggests the media uses images of women to present them as sex objects to be consumed by what Mulvey calls the male gaze. This can result in the media representing women as tall, thin, long legs, perfect teeth and hair.
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When using content analysis of teenage magazines in Britain, what did sociologists find they promoted.
They found that the magazines often presented the idea that slimness=happiness, which could potential cause eating disorders.
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What evidence have sociologists noticed suggest the media is actually beginning to empower women?
Sociologists have noted the increasing number of positive female roles emerging, especially in television drama and films. It is argued that these portrayals reflect the social and cultural changes that females have experienced over the last 25 years
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How does Gill argue that the depiction of women has changed in advertising?
Gill suggests women have changed from being passive objects of the male gaze, to active, independent and sexually powerful agents.
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How does Easthope argue that media, especially Hollywoos films and computer games, present masculinity?
Easthope argues that they view masculinity as based on strength, aggression, competition, with suggests that violence is biologically determined.
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What did the 1980's see the rise of, in contrast to this view of masculinity?
The 80s saw the emergence of magazines aimed at middle class oung men such as GQ, Maxim and FMH, the content of these magazines suggested men are: emotionally vulnerable, should be more in touch with emotions, treat women as equals, care more about
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What did the 1980's see the rise of, in contrast to this view of masculinity? (2)
their appearance and that active fatherhood is an experience worth having.
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What do post-modernists suggest the new man is a response to?
Post-modernists suggest the new man is a response to the growing economic independence and assertiveness of women. The media saw a rise to the metrosexual male, a type of masculinity that was focused on appearance and fashion.
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How do liberal feminists regard media representations?
Liberal feminists believe that media representations lag behind the reality of social and economic conditions. They acknowledge that representations of women have changed significantly for the better. However they identify
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How do liberal feminists regard media representations? (2)
that the majority of media owners are male, hindering the speed of women's progress.
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What do Marxist feminists believe is the cause of the stereotypical images of men and women?
They believe the cause is economic. The maledominated media aim to attract the largest audience possible and this leads to an emphasis on the traditional roles of men and women in sitcoms, game shows and cheap operas.
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How do radical feminists view the way the media represents women?
Radical feminists argue that traditional hegemonic images of femininity are deliberately transmitted by a male-dominated media to keep women oppressed into a narrow range of roles. Creating a sense of false-consciousness.
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How do post-modernists view the way media represents women?
Post-modernists believe that the mass media challenge traditional definitions of gender and are actually a force for social change.
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What did Batchelor find in regards to the way the media represent homosexuality?
Batchelor found that being gay was not generally integrated into mainstream media representations. When it did appear it was represented mainly as a source of anxiety or embarrassment, or seen as a target for teasing and bullying.
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How does Gerbner believe that the media symbollically annihilates gays and lesbians?
Gerbner believes the media symbolically annihilated them by negatively stereotyping them, rarely portraying them realistically or by not portraying them at all.
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According to Craig, what are the four most common social characteristics the media associates gays with?
1. Campness 2. Macho 3. Deviant 4. Responsible for AIDS
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What does Gauntlett argue in regards to the changes in the ways gays and lesbians are represented in the media?
Gauntlett suggests they are still under-represented in the media but things are slowly changing for the better. Gauntlett also suggests tolerance of sexual diversity is slowly growing in society.
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What are some of the common media representations of people with disabilities in the media?
1. In need of pity and charity 2. As victims 3. As villains 4. As super-cripples 5. As a burden
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What does Roper suggest mass media representations of disability on telethons can cause?
Roper suggests mass media representations of disability on telethons can create problems for these groups and the telethons over-rely on 'cute' children who are not representative of the range of people with disabilities.
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What does Karpf believe in regards to telethons?
Whilst acknowledging the importance of charity, Karpf believes telethons help to keep the audience in the position of givers and to keep recipients in their place as grateful and dependent. He notes they are about entertaining the public, rather
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What does Karpf believe in regards to telethons? (2)
than helping us understand.
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How does Nairn suggest the monarchy is represented by the media?
Nairn argues the media focuses positively on every trivial detail of their lives, turning the Queen and her family into an on-going glamorous soap opera. She is also used to create a sense of national identity.
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How do Neo-Marxists argue the media represents social class?
Neo-Marxists argue the media celebrates hierarchy and wealth.
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What does Newman argue the media over-focus on?
Newman argues the media over-focus on consumer items such as luxury cars, costly holiday spots and fashion accessories that only the wealthy can afford.
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What four sociological observations can be made in regard to the mass media's representations of the middle classes?
1. The middle class are over represented on TV dramas and situation comedies 2. Part of the British newspaper market is specifically aimed at the middle classes 3. Journalists believe the middle classes are anxious about the decline of moral
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What four sociological observations can be made in regard to the mass media's representations of the middle classes? (2)
standards in society 4. Most of the creative personnel in the media are themselves middle class.
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How does Newman argue news organisations represent the working class?
Newman argues they label the working class as a problem e.g. welfare cheats, drug addicts or criminals. Working class groups such as mods or skinheads are often the subject of moral panics.
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According to Curran and Seaton, what do newspapers assume working class audiences are uninterested in?
Newspapers assume working class audiences are uninterested in serious analysis of either the political or social organisation of British society. Political debate is often reduced simplistically to conflict personalities.
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How does Newman argue the media portray the poor?
Newman argues the media often portray the poor in statistical rather than in human terms by news bulletins that focus on the numbers unemployed or on benefits rather than individuals who are suffering.
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According to content analyses of media products, how are children often stereotyped by the media?
1. As victims of horrendous crimes 2. As cute 3. As little devils 4. As brilliant 5. As brave little angels 6. As accessories 7. As modern 8. An active consumers
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Which two broad ways are young people represented and targeted by the media?
1. There is a whole media industry aimed at socially constructing youth in terms of lifestyle and identity such as magazines, record companies, internet sites etc. 2. They argue often presented as a social problem
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How does Newman suggest upper class and middle class elderly people are portrayed in television and film dramas?
He suggests they are often portrayed in television and film dramas as occupying high-status roles as world leaders, judges, politicians, experts and business executives.
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How does Anna Ford argue age affects newscasting?
She argues that whilst older men are often paired with attractive young females, older women are often exiled to radio. Leading film and television stars are also relegated to characters parts once their looks and bodies are perceived to deteriorate.
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What other ways are elderly portrayed in the media?
1. Grumpy 2. As mentally challenged 3. As dependent 4. As a burden 5. As enjoying a second childhood.
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Why do many sociologists believe that media representations of ethnic minority groups are problematic?
Because they contribute to the reinforcement of negative racist stereotypes.
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What does Akinti argue television coverage of ethnic minorities over focuses on?
He argues that television coverage over focuses on crime, AIDS in Africa and Black children's under-achievement in schools, whilst ignoring the culture and interests of a huge Black audience and their rich contribution to British society.
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According to Van Dijk, what are some of the several negative stereotypical representations of black people in the media?
1. As criminals 2. Moral panics e.g. 70s mugger 3. As a threat 4. As dependent 5. As abnormal 6. As unimportant 7. As invisible
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How does Tunstall argue the media represents women?

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Tunstall argues that the media emphasise women's domestic, sexual, consumer and marital activities to the exclusion of all else.

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How are working women portrayed in the media?

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Card 4

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What is Tuchman et al.'s concept of 'symbolic annihilation'?

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How does Wolf suggest the media uses images of women to represent women?

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