Media Studies

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Who suggested the Uses & Gratification Theory?
Blumler & Katz (1959)
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What does the U&G Theory focus on?
What people do with the media, rather than what the media does to people
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What does the U&G Theory suggest about audiences?
It suggests that members of the audience are not passive and take an active role in interpreting media into their own lives. It also suggests audiences use media texts to fulfil certain needs and gratifications.
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What are the 4 parts of the basic U&G theory model?
1.Personal Identity 2.Educate/Inform 3.Entertainment/Escapism 4.Social Interaction
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Define Personal Identity.
Personal Identity- Audience members might compare themselves to characters in media. This may be done to reinforce personal values, such as aspiring to the appearance/behaviour of a role model.
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Define Educate/Inform.
Educate/Inform- Audiences use media texts to acquire information, knowledge and understanding.
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Define Entertainment/Escapism.
Entertainment/Escapism- The media you are consuming should provide you withenjoyment. However audiences may also use the text for a form of 'escapism' enabling them to relax and temporarily forget about worries. Acting as a diversion from reality.
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Define Social Interaction.
Social Interaction- Media can simply be used to keep us company, or provide a sense of belonging. As it stimulates conversations between people such as friends and family as they find common ground. Can be seen through the use of # in media texts.
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Who suggested Maslow's Hierachy of Needs?
Psychologist Abraham H Maslow
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Define Maslow's Hierachy of Needs.
Maslow suggested that all human beings have basic needs that must be fulfilled in order for them to survive. In media texts advertisers usually subtly play on these needs by suggesting that owning a certain product will help fulfill ceratin needs.
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What are the 5 Stages to Maslow's Hierachy of Needs?
Physiological, Safety,Social,Esteem,Self Actualization.
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Define Physiological
The need for food, water, breathing, sleep, excretion.
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Define Safety
The need to feel safe and be secure and free from threat or harm.
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Define Social
The nned to belong or fit in. To have relationships such as friendships.
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Define Esteem
The need to want others to think good/highly of you. to also achieve the respect of others.
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Define Self Actualization
The desire to feel you have done something good
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Define Male Gaze Theory? and who suggested it?
The Male Gaze Theory was suggested by Laura Mulvey in 1975. It suggests that media texts represent women as passive objects of male desire. Audiences are forced to view women from the point of view of a heterosexual male.
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Who supported the male gaze theory?
John Berger
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Who suggested the audience recpetion theory? and what did they suggest?
suggested by Staurt Hall in 1973, he said there is different ways audiences can interpret texts.
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What are the 3 ways Staurt Hall said audiences can read a text?
Preferred/Dominant Reading, Negotiated Reaing, Oppositional Reading.
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Define one of the ways?
Preferred/Dominant- When the audience interprets the text as xlose to the way the producer intended.If thre social and cultural of the reader is the same to the producer there is little for them to challenge.
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Define one of the ways?
Negotiated Readings- This is when the audience goes through some sort of negotiation with themselves to allow them to accept the way the text is presented. The audience may agree with some elements and disagree with others.
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Define one of the ways?
Oppositional- This is where the reader of the text finds themselves in conflict with the text usually due to thier culture, beliefs or past experiences.
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Card 2

Front

What does the U&G Theory focus on?

Back

What people do with the media, rather than what the media does to people

Card 3

Front

What does the U&G Theory suggest about audiences?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the 4 parts of the basic U&G theory model?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define Personal Identity.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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