Media sociologists

Digitalisation allows for media to be delivered across a range of platforms previously unconnected and separate. Young people grown up differently, have more access and more immediacy they're used to.
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Conford and Robbins
Argue NM are not so new and media is an accommodation between old and new e.g. games consoles require TVs. The only new is speed and 'real time' access
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Curran and Seaton
There are two debates about NM - Neophiliacs who embrace and Cultural Pessimists who are critical of it.
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In the post-modern world the distinction between high culture and popular culture has become blurred, increasing consumer choice.
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McDonaldisation - Decline in local cultures. It's possinle to travel anywhere without ever having to eat indigenous food.
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USA is dominating force in the spread of Global culture and cultural imperialism. American culture is ubiquitous.
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Twitter and Facebook are too wrapped up in 'me culture' to ever be effective tools of social change.
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People ar eos engaged in TV soaps and online gaming that they replace their actual families and communities with new media versions.
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Adorno and Marcuse
Argue global mass media is there to indoctrinate global consumers into capitalist ideology and to produce homogenised culture that prmotes values such as consumerism and materialism, thus producing false consciousness.
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Audiences are so immersed in the media, they can find it difficult to distinguish real life and the media version of reality. This is 'hyperreality' and has undermined truth and objectivity.
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Hegemonis Marxists argue the media reflects ruling class. Hegemonic Marxists argue media professionals subconsciously control content by transmitting dominant values of white, MC professionals who work for the organisations.
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Argue the media is a tool used bythe dominant group to control the masses and convince them the widespread inequalities are inevitable within a capitalist society.
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Media owners play a key role in helping to control the WC through a 'bread and circuses' approach. They deliberately make sure media output is mainly entertainments-orientated so people are kept happy, docile, and unawware of poverty and exploitation
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Members of society now have a greater choice in their acces to a greater diversity of media, making it easier for them to reject or challenge the meta-narratives proposed by the powerful.
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1983 - 50 organisations owned the majority of the USAs media. By 1992, 22 organisations did. By 2014, 6 corporations aree in control of the USAs media.
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Gauntling and Ruge
Newsworthy items included - Composition, Continuity, Elite people, Frequency, Meaningfulness, Negativity, Personalisation, Proximity, Threshold, Unambiguity, Unexpectedness.
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Events get falsley reported due to medias role in sensationalising stories. This is common in red top tabloids and can cause moral panic.
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There are different levels of deviancy and responses to moral panics. Not all moral panics are vulnerable - some are justified. The audience can see past the media moral panic techniques - are not passive.
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Journalists side with powerful groups as they have more in common with owners. They engage in agenda setting - leave out content that doesn't suit the neoliberal world view.
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Van Dijk
Black African-Caribbeans seen as criminals in the tabloid press. Right-wing tabloid newspapers often panic about ethnic minorities. Papers panic about impact this has on jobs and housing. The benefits of immigraiton are rarely covered.
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Magazines like Jackie encouraged girls to see romance and marriage as primary goals and to value themselves in terms of how they are valued by boys.
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Ethnic minorities are subject to media moral panics which aims to criminalise them and to present them as folk devils which threaten the stability of White society.
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Beauty Myth - media makes body an unattainable target that impacts women more than men - increase of EDs.
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Male-Gaze media is created through the lense of a heterosexual male. Overly-sexualised images of women.
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Media tend to ignoe issues with capitalism such as large bonuses bankers have which divide the rich and poor,
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Barnes (1992)
There are a range of images of the diabled. Content analysis of electronic and print media identified 'the disabled person' as pirable and pathetic, an object of violence, sinister and evil, 'super cripples', a burden, incapable of participating.
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The youth are blamed for issues in society. Adults project societal problems onto our youth.
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Heterosexuality is the dominant represented in the UK. Homosexuality isn't integrated into UK media and when it was, it was 'problematic state'
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Identifies three filters audiences have: Selective filter, Selective perception and Selective retention.
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State the agenda already set by media, meaning audeinces would struggle to interpret media outside ideological constraints.
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Dominant reading, Oppositional reading, Negotiated reading.
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In an experiment children changed their behaviour in response to what they had seen on the TV. Therefore they conclude violent media could lead to imitation or copycat violence.
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McQuail and Blumler
Audiences have their needs met by the media: Info/Surveillance, personal identity, entertainment and diversion, personal relationships.
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1/3 of the 31 most vistited sites are part of the largest media corporations in the world e.g. google own youtube.
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suggests domination of American cultural imperialism is a direct result of increasing concentration of the world' media companies in the hands of a few TNCs
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Kellner (1999)
Suggests global media culture is about sameness and it erases individuality
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Hannerz (1992)
Coca-colonisation describes how American products were penetrating cutlures of less-developed countries.
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Barber (2003)
Argues a rise in Islamic fundamentalism is a response to cultural imperialism of American culture that can sometimes undermine god.
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Putnam (1995)
Civic disengagement
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TNCs have the ability to disproportionately influencing governments
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Brighton and Foy (2007)
Suggest news values are often intangible, informal, almost uncoscious elements. News values define what is considered newsworthy. Criticise Galtung and Ruge for only using Norweigan papers.
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Davies (2008)
Found 80% of stories in The times, Guardian, Independent, Daily Telegraph and Daily Mail were mainy or partially constructed from second-hand material.
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Herman and Chomsky (1988)
Argue news-gthering is shaped by market forces e.g. advertiserss so output supports this ideology.
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Edwards and Cromwell (2006)
Argue the media's role as a propoganda machine for capitalism means subjects like poor human rights records are often ignored.
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Fiske (1987)
Found trade unionists were presented as 'demanding'
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Philo and Miller (2005)
Identify 4 groups who partake in communication process: Social and political institutions; the media; the public; the government.
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Tuchman et al. (1987)
Female issues may be marginalised by the media, lots of papers have women's pages which focus on women as a specialised group. Uses phrase "Symbolic annihilation" to describe how media women are absent, condemned or trivialised.
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Newbold (2002)
Found what little women's TV sport coverage tends to sexualise and devalue women's sporting accomplishments.
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Martinson (2014)
noted out of all over-50s appearing BBC TV, 82% are men. Over all broadcasters, women 50+ make up 5% of all presenters.
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Connell (1985)
argues feminine identity is the product of hegemonic definitions. Points out all agents of socialisation are involved in creating these expectations, but the mass media reinforce them.
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Wolf (1991)
Calls the 'beauty myth' - the idea women are primarily assessed in terms of appearance and expected to conform to male conceptions of female beauty.
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Children Now (2001) - gender
Found onlu 16% of all video game characters are female, with majority highly sexualised.
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Ferguson (1983)
Content analysis of women's magazines between 1949-1980. Concluded magazines were like manuals to teach women domestic skills and are built around a 'cult of femininity' that promotes ideals on appearance on marriage. Modern-only some diff visions
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How much is the U.S diet industry worth (Marxist fems)
$100 billion
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Top 100 grossing films 2014
Women were 12% of protagonists, 29% major characters and 30% of all speaking characters.
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Children Now (1999)
Asked 10-17 y/o boys perceptions of male characters they saw and found perceptions don't reflect changing male experience. Males are violent, leaders and problem-solvers. Rarely show vulnerability or cry. Most shown in workplace and 0 domestic chores
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McNamara (2006)
Analysed newspapers, magazines and TVs and claimed representations fail to portray reality. Found 80% reps were negatitve, shown as irresponsible risk-takers with no feelings. 20% focused on meterosexual male.
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Gauntlett (2008)
Claims men's magazines have a positive impact on encouraging considerate and kind masculinity and 'manhood' is socially constructed.
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Sharples (1999)
Retrubutive masculinity - An attempt to reassert traditional male authority by celebrating traditional concerns.
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Evans and Chandler (2006)
Note that advertising encourages children to have an appetite for toys and games which has lead to pester power - the power of children to manipulate parents to buy consumer goods that increase the child's status in the eyes of their peers.
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Gill (2007)
suggest to avoid risk of offending heterosexuals, homosexuality is 'sanitised'. Men are rarely sexualised by appear as attractive figures. Women often are - triple threat of appealing to gay+lesbian market, not offending or challenging heterosexuals
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Batchelor et al. (2004)
Discovered some aspects of sexuality were well represented in terms of publicising sexual health information and consent. Assumed 16y/os sexually active, contraception female responsibility, distinct differences in talking about sex and lack ofdivers
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Craig (1992)
1) Camp - colourful, flamboyant, often trivialised. 2)Macho - Exaggerated masculinity. 3)Deviant - Guilt about sexuality 4)In the news 5)AIDS - immoral and unnatural
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Bennett (2000)
Found in analysis of coverage that news media promotes LGBT discrimination
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Gerbner et al. (1986)
Argue the commercial structure of media limit representation opportunity to avoid alienating and offending audiences and advertisers.
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Curran and Seaton (2003) - class
Newspapers aimed at WC audiences assume they are uninterested in serious analusis of the political organisation of UK society. Political debvate reduced to conflict between two personalities. Attempt to distract from inequalities of capitalism.
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Deverux (2008)
Identified the underclass are portrayed negatively.
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Price (2014)
Labelled shows such as 'benefit street' as 'poverty ****'
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Cohen (2009)
argues the UK mass media is so concerned about trumpeting good fortune of british capitalism
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Hayward and Yar (2006)
Argue the label chav is now used by papers and websites as an amusing term of abuse for young poor people
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Lawler (2005)
Argues the media use discriminatory and offensive language to socially stigmatise a 'peasant underclass' symbolised by stereoytpical appearance and behaviour.
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Cumberbatch et al. (2014)
Content analysis of most popular programmes in 2013-14 found people portrayed as disabled represented just 2.5% of TV pop compared to 1 in 5 in real life
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Ofcom (2005) - disability
Found more than 4/10 appearances of disabled people were in the context of programmes highlighting issues of prejudice.
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Sancho (2003)
Notes wheelchair is often used as an icon of disability by those wishing to represent disability in their media.
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Philo et al. (2010)
63% of references to mental health were negative, critical, flippant, or unsympathetic
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Argue NM are not so new and media is an accommodation between old and new e.g. games consoles require TVs. The only new is speed and 'real time' access


Conford and Robbins

Card 3


There are two debates about NM - Neophiliacs who embrace and Cultural Pessimists who are critical of it.


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


In the post-modern world the distinction between high culture and popular culture has become blurred, increasing consumer choice.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


McDonaldisation - Decline in local cultures. It's possinle to travel anywhere without ever having to eat indigenous food.


Preview of the back of card 5
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