MB1 - Personality Definitions

  • Created by: Psych951
  • Created on: 10-05-18 10:56
Personality
Individual and enduring patterns of behaviour and thought responses
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Scientific Usefulness
Whether a theory is useful depends on comprehensive framework, predictive power and ability to stimulate new knowledge
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Psychodynamic Theory of Personality
Personality is an energy system in which instincts generate libido that drives behaviour due to need for release of libido
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Id
Core of personality and source of psychic energy governed by a pleasure principle independent of reality (unconscious)
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Ego
Executive of personality to balance id and superego working on the reality principle (conscious and pre)
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Superego
Counteracts the impulses of the id to resemble ideal self, governed by the morality principle (all levels of consciousness)
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Psychodynamic Explanation of Anxiety
Distress caused by the ego managing impulses from the id that threaten to get out of control
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Defence Mechanisms
Irrational coping methods for anxiety that are unconscious mental operations to distort reality and release impulses
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Repression
Type of defence mechanism that prevents negative feelings from reaching conscious
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Psychosexual Personality Development
Development of personality caused by the id's pleasure seeking being focussed on erogenous zones
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Fixation
Arrested development with instincts focussed on a particular erogenous zone due to too much or little stimulation, leading to specific types of personality characteristics
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Regression
Psychological retreat to an early stage of development due to current conflict
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Oral Stage
Infancy pleasure is focussed around the mouth and fixation could lead to self-indulgence or independence
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Anal Stage
2-3 years old pleasure is focussed on elimination and fixation could lead to extreme messiness or organisation
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Phallic Stage
4-5 years and pleasure is focussed on the sexual organs and identification with parents occur due to the Oedipus and Electra complex
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Latency Stage
6-12 years with dormant sexual desires allowing other skills and knowledge to develop
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Genital Stage
12+ years in which normal sexuality develops and may be affected by amount of energy release in earlier stages e.g. more of an oral personality may lead to more sexual stimulation from kissing
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Neoanalytic Approach
Disagree with certain aspects of Freud's Approach, particularly the emphasis on sexuality
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Adler's Approach to Personality
Humans are driven by social interests not selfish urges
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Adler's Object Relations Theory
We develop mental representations of ourself and others due to early caregiving experiences
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Jung's Theory of Personality
Personal and collective unconscious contributes to our personality
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Archetypes
Parts of collective unconscious that are inherited tendencies to interpret experiences in a certain way
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Phenomenology
Positive view of individual potential in the present moment
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Kelly's Personal Construct Theory
Goal to find personal meaning dictates personality
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Kelly's Personal Constructs
Cognitive categories to organise information according to what the individual deems important
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Roger's Theory of Self
Natural forces direct us towards self-actualisation and we have organised consistent perceptions about our self that drive personality
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Self-Consistency/Congruence
Desire for our self to align with ideal self and environment to avoid anxiety (which causes realignment of self-concept or reality distortion)
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Conditions of Worth
Factors that affect self-esteem and self-concept that cause incongruence
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Positive Self-Regard
Desire for positive information about self to maintain positive self-concept
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Type Theory of Personality
Categorise people's personalities based on groups who share common personalities
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Trait Theory of Personality
Categorise people's personalities based on individual levels of various traits
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Personality Traits
Relatively stable characteristics that establish individual identity
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Lexical Approach
Identify traits according to basic everyday language
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Factor Analysis
Identify traits by looking for correlations between clusters of behaviours and attitudes
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Cattle's Theory of Personality
16 Traits comprise personality
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Eysenck's Theory of Personality
2 super traits: Extroversion and neuroticism
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Five Factor Model
5 traits: Extroversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, conscientiousness and agreeableness
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Personality and Behaviour Consistency Paradox
The idea that personality is supposedly consistent but behaviour is not consistent in different situations
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Eysenck's Biological Model
Everyone has an average level of arousal but desire to be at optimal causing different personalities due to over, under, stable or unstable neural arousal
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Gary's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory
Same spectrum of personality to Eysenck but caused by sensitivity of biological systems to reward and inhibition, caused by basic biological factors
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Temperament
Individual differences in responses in early life that influence personality
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Social-Cognitive Perspective to Personality
Combines cognitive and behavioural approach, claiming that interaction of thinking with social environment produces learning experiences and behaviour
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Reciprocal Determinism
Person, environment and behaviour have a two-way causal relationship
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Rotter's Likelihood of Behaviour Model
Behaviour in different situations is determined by expectancy and reinforcement values
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Locus of Control
The perception of the degree to which we have control over our experiences
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Self-Efficacy
Belief about ability to perform behaviours needed to reach a goal
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Cognitive-Affective Personality System
Organised system of five variables that interact with each other and the environment to produce distinctive behaviour and thought patterns
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Behavioural Signatures
Representations of personality created by CAPS
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Gender Schema
Mental frameworks that represent gender role socialisation
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Measuring Personality - Interviews
Structured conversation to measure participants personality by analysing answers to their questions as well as gestures, voice tone etc.
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Measuring Personality - Behavioural Assessment
Explicit coding of predetermined behaviour categories whilst observing people
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Measuring Personality - Remote Behaviour Sampling
Participants self-report on behaviour and thoughts at random points through the day
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Measuring Personality - Personality Scales
Objective measures with standard questions to produce a profile of someone's personality/traits
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Measuring Personality - Projective Tests
Ambiguous stimuli are presented and interpretations offer insight into personality
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Whether a theory is useful depends on comprehensive framework, predictive power and ability to stimulate new knowledge

Back

Scientific Usefulness

Card 3

Front

Personality is an energy system in which instincts generate libido that drives behaviour due to need for release of libido

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Core of personality and source of psychic energy governed by a pleasure principle independent of reality (unconscious)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Executive of personality to balance id and superego working on the reality principle (conscious and pre)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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