MB1 - Learning Definitions

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  • Created by: Psych951
  • Created on: 09-05-18 17:32
Learning
The process of experience producing enduring and adaptive changes in capacity for behaviour
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Natural Selection
Genetically-based characteristics that are adaptive, increase survival and so are more likely to be passed on to the next generation
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Habituation and Sensitisation
Change in the strength of a response to repeated stimulus
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Classical Conditioning
An association is made between two stimulus that causes the response elicited by one to be produced by the other, when it wasn't previously
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Extinction
Conditioned response is weakened due to a lack of repeated reinforcement or association
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Spontaneous recovery
Remembering an extinguished association without more learning trials
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Generalisation and discrimination
Applying or not applying a conditioned response to similar stimulus
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Higher-order conditioning
Neutral stimulus is associated with an already aired conditioned stimulus
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Operant conditioning
How the consequences of an event affect subsequent behaviours
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Discriminative stimulus
Signal that a particular response will produce certain consequences
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Primary and secondary reinforcers
Primary satisfy biological needs and secondary are associated with biological needs
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Shaping
Reinforcing successive approximations towards desired behaviour to teach a new response
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Chaining
Sequence of events that provides opportunities to reach a final goal
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Stimuli Control
Discriminative stimuli influence behaviours
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Schedules: Continous vs. Partial.
Schedule - Pattern and frequencies of reinforcement; Continuous - Reinforcement occurs overtime the relevant behaviour occurs; Partial - Reinforcement only occurs on some of the relevant situations.
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Schedules: Fixed vs. Variable
Fixed - Reinforcement occurs on a fixed frequency; Variable - Reinforcement occurs at a random frequency around an average
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Schedules: Ratio vs. Interval
Ratio - Reinforcement occurs on a certain percentage of responses; Interval - Reinforcement occurs after a certain amount of time
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Evolutionary Preparedness
Ready to be conditioned to some stimuli more than others due to evolutionary past
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Insight
Sudden perception of relationships
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Cognitive Maps
Mental representations of spatial layout
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Latent learning
Learning has already occurred but is only demonstrated when needed
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Expectancy
Expect a conditioned stimulus to predict an unconditioned stimulus
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Blocking
An association has already been made and so cannot be conditioned with something else
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Latent inhibition
Conditioning is weakened because the neutral stimulus has already been seen
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Observational learning
Model's behaviour influences our own behaviour
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Hebb Rule
Learning is due to a strengthening of synaptic connections by simultaneous activation
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Temporal Contiguity
CS and UCS should be presented close together in time so that the CS predicts the UCS (the UCS is contingent on the CS)
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Consolidation
Ability to improve skills without new learning experiences/practice
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Genetically-based characteristics that are adaptive, increase survival and so are more likely to be passed on to the next generation

Back

Natural Selection

Card 3

Front

Change in the strength of a response to repeated stimulus

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

An association is made between two stimulus that causes the response elicited by one to be produced by the other, when it wasn't previously

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Conditioned response is weakened due to a lack of repeated reinforcement or association

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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