MB1 - Genes and Evolution Definitions

  • Created by: Psych951
  • Created on: 10-05-18 09:43
Genotype
Complete specific genetic makeup of an individual - The limits of our development
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Phenotype
Observable characteristics caused by interaction of genes and the environment
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Chromosome
Double-stranded tightly coiled molecules of DNA
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Gene
Biological unit of heredity made up of nucleotides - Carry instructions for the expression of functions and characteristics
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Allele
Alternative forms of the same gene to produce variation within a population
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Biological Genetics
Study of how hereditary and environmental factors influence psychological characteristics
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Degree of Relatedness
How many genes two people share - How closely related they are
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Degree of Concordance
How much co-occurence of characteristics there are between two people
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Heritability co-efficients
Extent to which a variation in a phenotypic characteristic within a group can be attributed to genetic causes
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Shared and Unshared Environment
Shared are when members experience common features and unshared is unique individual experiences
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Epigenetics
Environmental factors have a direct effect on chemicals in the body, interfering with gene expression
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Reaction Range
The possibilities for characteristics allowed by our genes
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Self-Selection of Compatible Environments
Seeking out conditions in which our genetic potential can thrive/be reached
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Genetic Manipulation
Duplicate or modify the structure of genes to alter functioning
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Genetic Screening
Produces information about an individuals genetic code, usually involving genetic counselling to understand the implications of what may be found
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Evolution
A change over time in the frequency of particular genes and characteritcis
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Mutations
Random events during gene reproduction during division of cells that drives evolution
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Natural Selection
Characteristics that increase survival and so are more likely to be passed on to the next generation and become more common in the species
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Evolutionary Noise
Traits that may not be relevant to survival all the time
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Adaptations
Physical or behavioural changes that allow an organisms to meet it's environmental needs
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Kin Selection
Do things to help our children survive and preserve our genes
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Reciprocal Altruism
Help others in the hope that they will return the favour to you or a relative to preserve your genes
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Evolutionary Psychology
Human nature i the expression of inborn biological tendencies that arise due to evolution
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Inherited Behavioural Adaptations
Traits that organisms are born with that help survival and reproduction
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Fixed Action Pattern
Unlearned behaviour automatically triggered by particular releasing stimuli
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Sexual Strategies Theory
Mating preferences are a reflection of inherited tendencies that were responsive to adaptive problems
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Social Structure Theory
Mating preferences are learnt through social roles which are passed on to our children - Biological and environmental interaction
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'The Big Five'
5 personality traits that seem to be universal and have helped survival and reproduction
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Strategic Pluralism
Multiple, even contradictory, behavioural strategies that may be adaptive in specific environments and so are all preserved
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Circular Reasoning
People think that because trait is evident now it must be because of evolution
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Genetic Determinism
Stating that genes produce all and unavoidable behaviours
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Observable characteristics caused by interaction of genes and the environment

Back

Phenotype

Card 3

Front

Double-stranded tightly coiled molecules of DNA

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Biological unit of heredity made up of nucleotides - Carry instructions for the expression of functions and characteristics

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Alternative forms of the same gene to produce variation within a population

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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