# Maths Skills A level Biology

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How do you calculate % change?
(Difference/ real value )x 100
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How to calculate BMI?
Weight (kg) / Height (M)^2
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What is the formula for calculating vitamin C concentration?
ConcB = (ConcA x VolA) / VolB
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What is Fick's Law of dffusion?
D = SA x (C2- C1)/Length
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How to calculate the initial rate of reaction in an enzyme substrate reaction?
Difference/time
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How to calculate mitotic index?
(Number of cells in mitosis/ total cells )x 100
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What is the heterozygosity index?
Number of heterozygotes/number of individuals in the population
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What is Simpson's Index of Biodiversity formula?
N(N-1) / Σn(n-1)
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How do you use the Simpson's index ('D') in practice?
Take 'D' of one habitat and compare with another. The higher the Index the more biodiversity.
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What are the conditions that must be satisfied for the Hardy Weinburg principle to be applied?
Large population, random breeding, isolated populations, no natural selection
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What does the Hardy Weinburg equation find?
if there has been a change in allele frequency over time in a population
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One equation for the Hardy Weinburg prinicipal is : p+ q = 1. What do p and q represent?
p = frequency of dominant allele in population q = frequency of recessive alleles in population
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Another HW equation: p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1. What do each of these terms mean?
p2 = frequency of Homozygous dominant 2pq = frequency of heterozygotes q2 = frequency of recessive homozygotes
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What is the Lincoln Animal Index used for?
To estimate the size of a mobile population of animals
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How do you calculate the tensile strenth?
Force applied (Mass)/ Cross section area
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How to calculate % cover of an organism in a habitat?
Use a 100cm2 quadrat. The amount of squares covered = % cover as estimate of a habitat.
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What is GPP?
The rate of production of organic molecules in photosynthesis by plants.
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What is NPP?
The rate of production of organic molecules by photosynthetic plants, MINUS respiration, where NPP is the amount of energy available to the next trophic level.
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What is the equation for NPP? What are the units?
NPP = GPP -R , kj/m2/year
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What is the temperature coefficient (Q10)?
The difference in the rate of an enzyme controlled reaction as the temperature changes by 10°C.
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If we were looking at the rate of reaction between 30°C. and 40°C, what would the formula for the Q10 (temperature coefficient) be?
(Rate of reaction @ 40°C.)/ (Rate of reaction @ 30°C)
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What does a temperature coefficient of 1.83 mean?
For the increase in 10(°C),the enzyme produced 1.83 times more product than it did in the same time 10 degrees less.
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How do you calculate seedling hatch rate?
Amount of seedlings hatched/ period of time
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How do you calculate the rate of respiration?
The volume of oxygen consumed / time
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How to calculate tidal volume from a spirometer trace?
Average Peak-trough volume
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How to calculate oxygen consumption from a spirometer?
1st peak - last trough / time
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How to calculate Respiratory/ Ventilation rate?
Tidal volume (dm3) x Breaths per minute
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Equation for cardiac output?
Cardiac output (dm3/min) = beats per min x stroke volume (cm3)
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(Yes this is on the spec!) How do you write 3000000 in standard form? (
3 x 10^6
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How does edexcel define "a ratio"?
Biggest number / Smallest number = Ratio.
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1cm3 = 1 millilitre. How many millilitres in 1dm3?
1000
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How to calculate the mean?
(Total of all values in set) / (number of values)
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What is the formula for magnitude?
Image/ actual size USE THE SAME UNITS
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Area of a circle?
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How to calculate the median?
Rank data. (N+1)/2 = Zth position. If Z between two values then find average of these two values.
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How is standard deviation used to look at relaiability of data?
A small standard deviation means more reliable data as close to the mean.
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What is the degrees of freedom formula when using Chi Squared test?
Number of columns (outcomes) -1
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What does it mean if the Chi Squared value is less than the critical value?
Accept the null hypothesis, there is no signifficiant difference in results (the observed is the outcome) as there is a more than 5% probability that any differences are due to chance.
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What is the null hypothesis of the Chi Squared test?
There will be NO difference between the observed and the expected outcomes.
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What is a nice catchy way of remembering when to accept/ reject the null hypothesis ?
ACCEPT LESS because it's the BEST you can do.
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What does it mean if Spearmen's Rank is greater than the critical value?
REJECT the null hypothesis - there is a significant correlation in results.
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what is the null hypothesis for the Spearmen's rank correlation coefficient?
There will be no correlation between the results.
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When do we use the Student T test?
Compare 2 sets of data only
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What is the null hypothesis of the student T test?
There will be no significant difference in the mean of A and the mean of B
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How do you calculate degrees of freedom for the student T test?
Number of samples A + Number of samples B - 2
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What is the degrees of freedom for spearmens Rank?
Number of pairs of data
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How many mm in a nm ( a nanometre)
1000000
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What is a DENSITY dependant BIOTIC factor?
Effects are related to the SIZE of the population relative to the AREA
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

How to calculate BMI?

#### Back

Weight (kg) / Height (M)^2

### Card 3

#### Front

What is the formula for calculating vitamin C concentration?

#### Back ### Card 4

#### Front

What is Fick's Law of dffusion?

#### Back ### Card 5

#### Front

How to calculate the initial rate of reaction in an enzyme substrate reaction?

#### Back 