Materials and their applications - Material properties

Mechanical properties
Mechanical properties are associated with how a material reacts to an external force.
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Physical properties
Physical properties are associated with the actual make up or structure of the material.
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Compressive strength
The ability to withstand being crushed or shortened by pushing forces (compression).
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Tensile strength
The ability to resist stretching or pulling force (tension).
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Bending strength
The ability to resist forces that may bend the material.
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Shear strength
The ability to resist sliding forces on a parallel plane.
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Torsional strength
The ability to withstand twisting forces from applied torque or torsion.
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Hardness
The ability to resist abrasive wear such as scratching, surface indentation or cutting.
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Toughness
The ability to absorb impact force without fracture.
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Plasticity
The ability to be permanently deformed (shaped) and retain the deformed shape.
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Ducility
The ability to be drawn out under tension, reducing the cross-sectional area without cracking, for example stretching a material into a wire.
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Malleability
The ability to withstand deformation by compression without cracking. Malleability increases with a rise in temperature.
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Elasticity
The ability to be deformed and then return to the original shape when the force is removed.
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Electrical conductor
Allows the flow of electrical current through the material. A good conductor give very little resistance to the flow of charge.
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Electrical insulator
Does not allow the flow of electricity through the material.
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Thermal conductor
Allows the transfer of heat energy through the material. A material with high thermal conductivity allows the transfer of heat to occur quickly across the material.
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Thermal insulator
Prevents the transfer of heat through the material.
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Thermal expansion
The increase in material volume in response to a heat input.
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Opaque
Prevents light from travelling through.
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Translucent
Allows light through but diffuses the light so that objects appear blurred. Frosted glass is an example of a translucent material.
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Transparent
Allows light to pass through easily which means you can see clearly.
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Density
The mass of the material in a standard volume of space.
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Fusability
The ability of the material to be fused or converted from a solid to a liquid or a molten state, usually by heat. Good fusibility is an essential property for a metal being cast.
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Magnestism
The natural force between objects that causes the material to attract iron or steels.
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Corrosion/degradation resistance
The ability of the material to withstand environmental attack and decay.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Physical properties are associated with the actual make up or structure of the material.

Back

Physical properties

Card 3

Front

The ability to withstand being crushed or shortened by pushing forces (compression).

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The ability to resist stretching or pulling force (tension).

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The ability to resist forces that may bend the material.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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