Mass Media: Two Step Flow and U+G

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1. Which three filters did Klapper state media messages must pass through? (all correct)

  • selective exposure: audience choose, media messages can have no effect if no one seems them, choose content based on film certification system
  • selective perception: audience may not accept the message - may take notice of some but reject/ignore others
  • selective retention: messages have to stick in mind of those who have accessed the media content
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2. Who stated that personal relationships and conversations with SO result in people modifying/rejecting media messages - social networks are usually dominated by an opinion leader?

  • Lull
  • Katz and Lazarsfeld
  • Klapper

3. Which 5 uses of the media did Lull identify? (all correct)

  • Competence dominance: members of the family may demonstrate their power by taking control of the remote
  • Affiliation: tv may reinforce family community - sit down to watch popular show that transcend age differences together
  • Avoidance: use TV to escape others
  • Relational: gives families something to talk about - families don't sit down together for dinner
  • Social learning: use media to solve problems, seek guidance, to access info and learning, and to find role models

4. Who stated that young may see new forms of media as lessening need for face to face communication - social and community interaction eroded by privatisation of new media technologies - influence socially from confines of bedroom?

  • Klapper
  • Watson
  • Blumler and McQuail

5. Which 4 basic needs did Blumler and McQuail note? (all correct)

  • Personal identity: people use media to makeover or modify their identity
  • Surveillance: people use media to obtain info and news about the social world in order to help them make up their minds on particular issues
  • Diversion: people immerse themselves in media to make up for lack of satisfaction at work and daily lives
  • Personal relationships: media used to compensate for decline of community as people identify with soap characters as we know more about them then our own neighbours. cyber communities - alternative families


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