Mass Media: Two Step Flow and U+G

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1. Which two stages did Katz and Lazarsfeld suggest media messages have to go through? (both correct)

  • the opinion leader is exposed to media content
  • those who respect the opinion leader internalise their interpretation of that content
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2. Which three filters did Klapper state media messages must pass through? (all correct)

  • selective exposure: audience choose, media messages can have no effect if no one seems them, choose content based on film certification system
  • selective perception: audience may not accept the message - may take notice of some but reject/ignore others
  • selective retention: messages have to stick in mind of those who have accessed the media content

3. Which 4 basic needs did Blumler and McQuail note? (all correct)

  • Diversion: people immerse themselves in media to make up for lack of satisfaction at work and daily lives
  • Surveillance: people use media to obtain info and news about the social world in order to help them make up their minds on particular issues
  • Personal relationships: media used to compensate for decline of community as people identify with soap characters as we know more about them then our own neighbours. cyber communities - alternative families
  • Personal identity: people use media to makeover or modify their identity

4. Who stated that young may see new forms of media as lessening need for face to face communication - social and community interaction eroded by privatisation of new media technologies - influence socially from confines of bedroom?

  • Klapper
  • Watson
  • Blumler and McQuail

5. Who stated that personal relationships and conversations with SO result in people modifying/rejecting media messages - social networks are usually dominated by an opinion leader?

  • Katz and Lazarsfeld
  • Klapper
  • Lull


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