Mass Media Theorists

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-7 people own all of the UK media outlets
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-"No one group should have the monopoly of power"
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-"The role of the media is to shape how we think about the world we live in"
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Globalisation- " The interconnectedness of societies"
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Simulacra- Individuals obtain what they experience as the real knowledge about the real world from the media, but this is actually a reproduced knowledge about an entirely simulated or reproduced world- Hyper reality
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Cultural Imperialism- Cultural dominance, western culture is transmitted globally and takes over
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Mocdonaldization/ Disnification- Global culture is American culture
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-List of five features that makes the news worthy of presentation- Script, dress formally, 'at the scene' reports, good body language and high-tech environment
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-"The news is not discovered, but manufactured"
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Gatekeepers- Person/People who decide what is going to appear on the news and what is not
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Herman and Chomsky
-The propaganda model of the media the ruling class is made up of, media owners, business owners and political rulers
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-Found that journalist regard the ruling elite 'The primary definers' as more credible than others and so report on that they say- "Powerful people make news"
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Churnalism - Alerted to this practice by what he called 'flat earth' news stories -Journalists make up news stories to fill up the news time
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Galtung and Ruge
11 News Values- Such as extraordinariness, reference to elite person and continuity
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Moral Panic- A wave of public concern about an exaggerated or imaginary threat to society often created by media reporting
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Goode and Yehuda
Folk devils- Over simplified, ill-informed generalisation of particular social groups who the media (and powerful people) wish to demonise
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Scapegoats- A group of people or idea that is demoinised and targeted to cover-up and divert attention from other issues in the media i.e. Explotation- Hall studied the media labeling all black people as a threat and 'muggers' to divert attention
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-Society changes quickly, powerful people find it hard to adjust so identify the threat and dismiss activity and create moral panic of that threat
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Bobo doll- Studied children behaviour after watching an adult act agressive
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McCabe and Martin
Media violence has a disinhabitation effect- it convinces children that in some social situations, the 'normal' rules that govern conflict and differences can be suspended
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Fesbach and Singer
Catharsis- Viewing violent media provides a outlet to release violent tendencies
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Sensitisation- People see gory/ violent movies/ video games and think they are disgusting
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-Media audiences are active- People use the media to satisfy their own needs
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Bulmer and McQuail
Uses and Gratifications Model- There are 4 basic needs which people need to satisfy by using the media; personal identities; personal relationships; surveillance and diversion
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Selective Filter- For the media to have an effect it must pass through three filters; selective exposure; selective perception and selective retention
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Bob Connell
Hegemonic Representation- The idea that a certain group (Men, women, the disabled...) are presented in a stereotypical way that is transmitted through the home and generations from the media
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Symbolic Annihilation- Often groups achievements are presented as less important and are never celebrated/included and are trivialised
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-75% of adverts use women for bathroom and kitchen -Twice as many women are shown with children -56% of ads portray women as housewives
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Beauty Ideal- Women should treat their bodies as a project in constant need of improvement
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Cult of Femininity- Magazines focus on 'Him, Home and Looking Good'
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Male Gaze- Women are seen as objects and to be looked upon by males
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-Women are decorative -Only 18% of news stories quote women
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-Women are shown in two roles: 1) Housewife and mother 2) Sexual and romantic
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Genderquake- Gender roles and perceptions are being shaken
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Masculine myth- Hollywood films and video games give this impression that a 'real man' is based on his strength, aggression and violence
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6 recurring stereotypes of males- The joker; strong silent type; the big shot; the action hero; the buffoon and the jock
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The New Man- Studied content of FHM, which was extremely positive as it encouraged men to be caring, considerate, useful in the home, funny etc...
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The Metrosexual- The increase in male beauty products reflects a demand/ view of metro-sexual
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Retributive Masculinity- An attempt to reassert traditional masculine authority by celebrating traditional male concerns (Birds, *****, Balls, Booze)- Anti-feminist backlash
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5 Stereotypes of Homosexuality- Camp, Macho, Deviant, Gays in the news, Coverage of aids (Moral panics)
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Homosexuality is sanitised for a hetrosexual audience
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Disability is a social construction
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The disabled are disabled by society
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11 recurring stereotypes of disability- Super-cripple; sexually abnormal; object of ridicule
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-Disabled people appeared in 11% of programming in 2002
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-Negative language in newspapers such as 'suffers', 'condition' etc...
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81% of disabled people questioned say that attitudes have not improved
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Heintz Knowles
-Representations are positive -Children are concerned with relationships with their friends, sports, and romance and less with the bigger issues such as racism
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Wayne et al
-2130 news items across all the main tv channels during May 2006 286 stories focused on youths- 28% on celebs - 82% on young people as perpetrators or victims of violent crimes from other youths
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Lee et all
-While representations of the elderly in advertisements is still rather low (15%) the majority of adverts portray the elderly as the 'golden age' who are healthy and active
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Van Dijk
Carried out content analysis on tens of thousands of news items across the world over several decades- He found that there are six recurring stereotypes- EM as Criminals, as a threat, as unimportant etc..
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Sir Alan Blair
"The death of a young [white] lawyer was terrible but an Asian man was dragged to his death, a women was chopped up, [Asian] chap shot in the head"
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Tv Coverage focuses on: Crime, aids in Africa, Black underachievement in schools
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The media has an over focus on black gun crime- "Black people re troublesome, but entertaining for the media"
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Black people are often portrayed as criminal- This is achieved through the creation of moral panics and folk devils
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Jonny Cash
Critics argue that this idea (as Criminals) ignores other genres of music such as lyrics featuring Jonny Cash song "I shot a man and watched him die"
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Philo and Beattie
Immigrants- Threat in terms of their numbers - Refugees and asylum seekers- Threat against tex and the welfare system -Muslims- Who both before 9/11 and after were subject to 'islamaphobic' media coverage
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Muslims are often portrayed as negative or never appear at all (Symbolic annihilation)
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"Why is it that Muslim women have so much trouble adopting our values and dressing accordingly?"
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Media institutions which specifically target minority groups have emerged- Bollywood
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Often portrayed as a statistic rather than actual people
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Shildrick and MacDonald
Chavs-An amusing term of abuse for poor young people based on stereotypical imagery
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"Freaks to be mocked"
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Very few comedies, drama's or films which focus on the working class- Often portrayed as having unflattering mannerisms
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Curran and Seaton
Newspapers aimed at W/C audiences assume that they are uninterested in political or financial issues
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Focus on every trivial detail- Reinforces a sense of national identity- Royal events are global events- Rarely criticised
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Card 2


-"No one group should have the monopoly of power"



Card 3


-"The role of the media is to shape how we think about the world we live in"


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Card 4


Globalisation- " The interconnectedness of societies"


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Card 5


Simulacra- Individuals obtain what they experience as the real knowledge about the real world from the media, but this is actually a reproduced knowledge about an entirely simulated or reproduced world- Hyper reality


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