Mass Media Key Definitions

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Any form of communication, either written or technological, that is invented to allow transmission to many people
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A generalised view of what something or someone typically is
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The patterns of behaviour we can expect from people in different positions of society
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How we see and define ourselves
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A set of unwritten social rules
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Beliefs of right and wrong and what is important
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A group set of Norms and Values
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Mass Media
Any form of dialogue, either written or technological, that is invented to allow transmission to many people
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Any form of dialogue, either written or verbal between people
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The coming together of different forms of media
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When the audience is expected to police and monitor all necessary restricitons on the freedom of speech
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Audience participation in the creation of the media
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Media that is about other media
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The opening up to the world economically through production and consumption
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The choices made in the creation of te media
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The deliberate or actual distortion or partial reporting of reality
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A person who decides on the final content of any media product
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A label for the editor and creators of the media as they are the people who decide which ideas / stories make it through the publication
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Restricitons on the freedom of speech
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Agenda Setting (Validity of Content)
The media deciding which subjects are appropriate for the news or for discussion
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News Values (Validity of Content)
The media's decision that stories are worthy of being called news
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Moral Panic
When the media causes a group, person or situation to become seen as a threat to society
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Purpose of the Media
1. To Advertise 2. To Entertain 3. To Educate / Give Information 4. To Communicate 5. To Socialise
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Ways the Media affects out Behaviour
Showing the underlying values of what is good, demonising the undesirable, showing the consequences for actions, socialising through showing desirable norms and values, showing role models
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Concentration (Ownership)
A small number of large media corporations own all the media
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Globalisation (Ownership)
The few large media corporations are now transnational and thus have media all over the world
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Diversification (Ownership)
As shown by convergence, the large media corporations own all the different types of media
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Media Ownership
1. Media Barons - Rupert Murdoch 2. Public Corporations - BBC
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Marxists focus on ownership of the media as being very important in understanding how the capitalist owners control the public. Ownership of many different type of media allows the ruling class to promote their norms and values to the public.
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Pluralists believe that the Marxists are wrong and that it is the audience who has ultimate control of contemporary media. They argue that this is due to the increase in Interactivity as well as the importance of ratings.
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A Window (Trowler)
openly show us other worlds and life experiences
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An Interactive Link (Trowler)
Linking us to other people
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A Carrier of Information (Trowler)
A giver of knowledge
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A Filter (Trowler)
Passes on partial information that has been changed / altered to give us a certain veiw
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A Mirror (Trowler)
Reflects our lives
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A Barrier (Trowler)
Prevent real knowledge
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An Interpreter (Trowler)
Decides what is important information and present it in a certain style
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A Signpost (Trowler)
Shows us what is important
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Control of the Media
1. Editors / Journalists (Gatekeepers) 2. Government / Law 3. Audience 4. Advertisers 5. Owners
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Practical Considerations (Validity of Content)
A news programme or paper only has a certain amount of time or a certain number of pages to fill and this restriction will affect content
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Practical Constraints (Validity of Content)
A media corporation with more money will be able to investigate and report on more expensive stories, such as international incidents from abroad
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Distortion (Representation in the Media)
Information passes through a filter and roles are changed to give us a certain view (Trowler)
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Repetition (Representation in the Media)
The constant bombardment of the audience with one type of image makes the image seem normal
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Socialisation (Representation in the Media)
Through the media we discover the desirable Norms and Values; otherwise known as norm-setting
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Invisibility (Representation in the Media)
Not seeing a certain roles makes them seem abnormal e.g. Househusbands
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Role Models (Representation in the Media)
Faced with famous examples of roles, we imitate them, hoping to gain their lifestyle
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Those who receive the media
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Media Effects Models
The different theories of how the media can effect its audience
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Hypodermic Syringe Model (Media Effects Models)
Some sociologists have argued that the media has a direct and immediate effect on its audience, like a drug being injected directly into a vein. If you watch something violent, you will become violent.
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Cultural Effects Model (Media Effects Models)
The effect as being much slower like a dripping tap. The repeated message of the media slowly enter out consciousness and new norms are set. Certain values and behaviour are 'normalised' , the hidden messages are a form of secondary socialisation
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Two-Step Flow Model (Media Effects Models)
Seen as an indirect effect. Some people are seen as Opinion Leaders and they interpret the media for others. 2008 Jonathan Ross & Russell Brand - taken off air due to complaints not from directly hearing the show but on media opinion of the show
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Uses & Gratification Model (Media Effects Models)
States the audience chooses which media to watch. Media does not change its audience and any effects of media are desired effects of the audience. Media is used in different ways by its audience for different purposes
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Card 2


A generalised view of what something or someone typically is



Card 3


The patterns of behaviour we can expect from people in different positions of society


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Card 4


How we see and define ourselves


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Card 5


A set of unwritten social rules


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