Mary I

  • Created by: LivWisden
  • Created on: 30-05-19 14:55
When did Edward VI die and what did Mary do in response?
6th July 1553. Mary moved to Kenninghall in Norfolk and summoned county nobility to support her.
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When did May formally proclaim her claim to the throne?
9th July 1553
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What were Northumberland's actions?
On the 10th July 1553, Lady Jane Grey was proclaimed in London and on the 14th, Northumberland left London with an army to secure Mary.
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When did the council and Northumberland surrender?
19th July
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Why was Mary successful?
Due to the actions of the Pricy Council and the support she received in East Anglia and the Thames Valley (mainly from provincial nobles and gentry).
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Why did Mary have support?
Traditional explanation (Guy) is that supporters motivated by legality of Mary's claim. Loach by contrast argues that those who supported Mary were religiously motivated - early support almost exclusively conservative. .
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Who were Mary's court offices dominated by?
Initially, they were monopolised by her Kenninghall faction and her early supporters but most were quickly displaced by Edwardian privy councillors.
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Which three major policies did Mary dictate during her reign?
Her marriage, reunion with Rome and declaration of war with France.
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How many privy councillors did Mary appoint during her reign?
50, a very large number. 17 continued from Edward or Henry's.
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What did Paget do to the privy council?
Paget reduced the large privy council to a core of 19 working councillors 12 of which joined only after Northumberland's collapse.
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How were parliament-Crown relations?
Initially some significant opposition to Crown policy however once fight to safeguard ex-religous property rights won, Parliament relatively compliant
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Which two acts were passed that stand as landmarks in English military organisation?
Act for the Taking of Musters which obliged every section of society to contribute to shire levies and Act for Horse Armour and Weapons which laid down equipment needed according to a graded hierarchy of wealth. 1558
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When did Charles V propose that his son should marry Mary?
July 1553
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How did Mary's advisers feel about her marriage plans?
Most except Paget opposed a foreign marriage as they feared that England would be absorbed into the Hasburg empire and wanted her to marry Coutenay.
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When did Mary secretly agree to the marriage?
October 1553
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How did Parliament react to news of Mary's marriage?
They petitioned her to not marry Phillip but she silenced them with rebuke that they would not use such language with a king.
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What were the terms of the marriage treaty?
They were remarkably favourable to England. Mary and Phillip's child to inherit England whilst Don Carlos to inherit Spain and the New World. Neither Don Carlos nor Phillip would have any claim to the English throne and Phillip not able to appoint.
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When was the marriage treaty concluded and ratified?
It was concluded and published in a royal proclamation in the New Year of 1554 and ratified by parliament in April.
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When did Phillip arrive in England?
July 1554. Managed to win respect from leading English notables - lavishly distributed pensions.
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What was Wyatt's plan?
Overthrow Mary and replace her with Elizabeth, who was t be married to Edward Courtenay.
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Possible motives for Wyatt rebellion
Fear of Spanish control, Protestant, specific circumstances in Kent - economic hardship due to declining cloth industry, local political instability.
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Why did the rebels have to advance their plans and what did this mean?
Originally planned for four rebellions to begin in March 1554 but had to advance plans in January - only one uprising materialised in Kent.
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How many men were in the rebel army which marched on London?
3,000 led by Wyatt.
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What was the outcome of the Wyatt rebellion?
London Bridge was closed to the rebels and rebellion collapsed. Wyatt and Jane Grey executed. Elizabeth arrested.
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What religious changes did Mary make in her first parliament of 1553?
Repealed the Act of Uniformity, clerical marriage act and communion in both kinds act. Restored Six Articles and Catholic mass.
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When did Cardinal Reginald Pole arrive in England?
November 1554
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Why were there tensions between parliament and Pope Julius III.
Due to the issue of ex-monastic and chantry land held by laity. English nobility insisted on a general dispensation but pope only wanted to issue separate ones. Charles V intervened and Julius agreed.
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When did the parliament for the re-union with Rome meet?
November 1554. They produced a petition for papal absolution and a return to Roman jurisdiction.
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Why were proceedings further held up in the November parliament?
Parliament wanted the papal dispensation to be included in the body of the statute repealing Henrician legislation and that holders of Church property to be absolved in thier consciences.
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How did this struggle end?
Compromise - dispensation included but no relief given to consciences.
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What was passed in January 1555?
The great Act of Repeal which united England with Rome as well as the re-introduction of statutes against heresy originally devised against heresy.
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When did trials for heresy begin intensely?
January 1555 and persecution intensified in November 1555 after Gardiner's death.
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What is the stat for religious persecutions?
274 religious executions in the last 3 years of Mary's reign.
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When were Ridley and Latimer burned?
October 1555
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What was Cranmer indicted for?
On six counts, concentrated upon his rejection of papal authority.
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When was Cranmer burned?
March 1556
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Evaluate the persecution
Worked to encourage activity of English exiles and could be argued decreased popular support. However, unsure about general opinions - many could have regarded them as trouble makers, had been persecutions before. History of Europe in 16th century.
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How many bishops remained in office at the beginning of 1555?
Mary had replaced most with Counter-Reformation men, ensuring that only 7/22 bishops in office at the death of Edward still held sees.
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When did Pole hold his legatine synod?
November 1555 to February 1556
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What was included in the Twelve Decrees?
Emphasis on obligation of bishops to reside in their sees and supervise the religious life of their parishes. Establishment of seminars to be attached to cathedrals for training priests. But only a single creation at York.
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What is Guy's opinion on Marian Catholicism?
That it was incomplete. Liturgical rites returned but cult of saints, pilgrimages and belief in purgatory casualties of an earlier regime. Few shrines and relics reappeared and dissolution of chantries made re-education difficult.
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What do Whiggish historians criticise Marian Catholicism for?
Its emphasis on the physical and ceremonial. Condemn it as backward looking rather than innovative, although recent work has stressed the importance of such things to the ordinary parishioner.
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What was there a lack of concerted official effort to restore?
Fraternities and lay associations - but quite dependent upon private initiative - lack of genuine desire for Catholicism?
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What did Mary's religious policy achieve particular success in?
Physical restoration and cultural response - resurgence of music in traditional style and organs restored. In particular, rood screen - reinforces transubstantiation.
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Did the Marian Church make use of the printing press?
Yes, although some argue less effectively than Protestant exiles. Released sermons, homilies and catechisms e.g. Bonner's 1555 collection of homilies distributed.
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Was preaching used?
Cautiously but yes. Pole despatched preachers to the diocese of Worcester in 1555 and Salisbury in 1557.
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Were Marian authorities particularly innovative?
Yes, they seem to have hit upon methods of re-Catholicisation that were to prove successful later. Emphasis on pastoral high, high standards of clerical education and stress of preaching.
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What were the particularly impressive decisions at the Westminster Synod?
Strict standards set for clergy, including orders to preach (pre-dated Council of Trent). In favour of translating scriptures. Idea of seminaries (taken to Council of Trent by Pole's secretary) but lacked sufficient funding.
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What were Mary's debts like?
Inherited a £185,000 debt which increased relatively modestly to £300,000 by the end of her reign owing to the war with France.
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When was the particularly poor harvest of her reign?
1555
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Which parliament did Mary summon to raise money?
Her fourth parliament in October 1555. Complaints of poverty but managed to secure a £180,000 grant.
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Which bill was defeated in 1555?
Return of all exiles on pain of having lands confiscated.
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When was the plot between English exiles and France initiated?
Early 1556, but Henry II failed to finance it and it petered out. No notables.
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Why was there a significant loss of income for royal government during this period?
Selling of Crown estates, lands restored to Howards, Courtenays, Nevilles and Percies.
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How was crown revenue increased?
Customs reformed - rates raised on average by 100% and new duty placed on cloth exports. Customs revenues rose from £25,900 in 1550-51 to £82,800 in 1558-59.
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What did Mary do concerning the navy?
Refurbished introducing 6 new ships and many repairs. Navy in 1557 far better organised and managed.
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Which three social acts did Mary pass?
Weavers Trade Act, Hospitals and Provision for the Poor.
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Why were France and Spain at war by January 1557?
Pope Paul IV hated the Hasburgs. His nephew provoked a Spanish invasion of the papal states and due to a French-papal alliance, the French got involved.
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Why did Phillip do upon the outbreak of war?
He returned to England in March 1557 to persuade the Council to join the conflict. Pole's legatine commission revoked.
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What was the Council's opinion on the French war?
Did not want to get involved (famine and economic problems). But Stafford rebellion meant nobles supported war.
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When did England formally join the war?
7th June 1557
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When was Calais captured?
New Years 1558.
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What seems to have preoccupied the population more than the loss of Calais?
Devastating epidemics of 1557 and 1558 which saw the population drop by about 200,000.
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What treaty was agreed for peace under Elizabeth?
Treaty of Chateau Cambresiss in 1558
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Card 2

Front

When did May formally proclaim her claim to the throne?

Back

9th July 1553

Card 3

Front

What were Northumberland's actions?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When did the council and Northumberland surrender?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why was Mary successful?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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