Marxism contributions to society

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What type of theory is Marxism?
Structuralist- organisation of a capitalist society, which is based on social class relationships, influences social behaviour.
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How many independent parts do Marxists see society divided up into?
2: Infrastructure and Superstructure
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How does conflict between the social classes affect education?
Middle class children are put at an advantage- higher sets, teachers using elaborated code, encouraged to challenge themselves.
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How does conflict between the social classes affect families?
Women expected to stay at home and watch children/cook/clean whilst the man goes out and contributes to the labour force for the wealthy businessmen who own the companies.
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What is the infrastructure made up of?
Economic System- goods are manufactured in factories in a capitalist society.
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What are the two names fo the 2 economic classes?
Bourgeoise and Proletariat
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How does the Bourgeoise exploit Proletariats?
They use them as workers for their businesses and pay them a lower wage than products are sold for, making themselves a surplus profit.
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What does this exploitation of W/C creating inequalities in wealth/income lead to?
W/C are left with very little choice but to often engage in criminal activity and deviant behaviour to avoid poverty and deprivation. May join deviant subcultures (drugs/street crimes)
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Who argues the media plays a part in this exploitation?
Marcuse- he says our needs and wants are manipulated by the media. They advertise what we should be buying, increasing profits for the rich, and making the poor even poorer wanting these goods. Keeps people's minds on trivia not capitalism.
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What is the Superstructure made up of?
Institutions such as family, education, media.
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How do the U/C prevent W/C from suspecting exploitation?
They create laws and policies which appear to benefit everyone but really themselves. E.g. NHS- really to keep workers fit to work and keep bringing in profits. So they accept their unequal position.
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Who talked about the role of the state?
Althusser- looked at ideological state apparatus e.g. religion. How it creates a false class consciousness. E.g. our position is from God, will get rewards in afterlife. 'Opium of people' - everything will be okay. Makes them blind to the oppression
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What did Marx predict?
A revolution- W/C would overthrow U/C- never happened.
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What is one way Marxists can be criticised?
They focus way too much on conflict- capitalism has actually be seen to have improved the standard of living some the w/c in some instances. They may be aware of exploitation but see this as compensating for it.
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What is one way Marxists can be criticised?
Marx's prediction of a revolution simply hasn't occured. He predicted that there would be a polarization of people. Tiny rich minority and enormous poor majority- not occured.
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What is one way Marxists can be criticised?
Economic reductionism- reducing the behaviour simply to class relationships.
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What are some Neo-Marxists critical of Traditional Marxists for?
Economic determinism- sometimes social behaviour isn't necessarily shaped by the economic system.
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Who says ideas can exist outside the infrastructure and superstrucure?
Gramsci- challenges the cultural dominance of the Bourgeoise- not always the case.
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Who concludes and what do they say?
Harvey- in past 20 years capitalism has changed signicantly.
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How has Capitalism changed over recent years?
Globalisation has created new areas of commerce and profit sources. Harvey suggests the state is less powerful than global insitutions e.g. world trade centre.
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What will replace social class?
Harvey suggests gender and Ethnicity will become a dominant source of inequality instead of social class.
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Card 2

Front

2: Infrastructure and Superstructure

Back

How many independent parts do Marxists see society divided up into?

Card 3

Front

Middle class children are put at an advantage- higher sets, teachers using elaborated code, encouraged to challenge themselves.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Women expected to stay at home and watch children/cook/clean whilst the man goes out and contributes to the labour force for the wealthy businessmen who own the companies.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Economic System- goods are manufactured in factories in a capitalist society.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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