Marxism and inequalities in healthcare.

Marxism (1818-1883).
Marx was inspired by the Russian Revolution. Political movements influenced his thinking about how societies were structured and changed. Main models of production- primitive communism or tribal society, ancient society and capitalism.
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Marx's theory of the development and society.
Characterised human history in terms of the way in which ownership of production Was the most important single variable involved in the characteristaion of each distinct period in history. Identified 5 major epochs.
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1) Primitive Communism.
Characteristic of early human history where people held everything in common.
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2)The Ancient Epoch (Slave Society).
Societies based upon slavery where means of productionwas owned and controlled by an aristocratic elite.
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3) Freudal Society.
Where land was the most important means of production. This was owned/ controlled by an aristocratic class, the majority of people belonging to a peasant class (who had little to no political rights).
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4) Capitalist society.
Where technological development (machinery etc.)has allowed a bourgeois class to exploit factory forms of production for their private gain.An employer does not own their employee in this society and various political freedoms/equalities can develop.
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5) Communist Society.
Where the means of productionare held in common for the benefit of everyone in society. In this society class conflict is finally resolves, no furtherform of society can ever develop.
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Macro Theory.
Behaviour or actions of individuals are explained in terms of the affect structures have on them.
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Conflict.
Conflict between the system of production and especially between workers and owners were seen as essential factors of modern society. Society is organised and structured around these relationships.
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Relations of production/ Conflict of interest.
Emphasises the idea that social life is based upon 'conflicts of interest. Most fundamental of these conflicts is between the bourgeoisie (own/control the means of production) and the proletariat (those who sell labour/work).
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Exploitation.
The workers are exploited by the capitalists. Marx said that eventually the workers will rise up in revolution against the capitalist class. A new communist society will be created.
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The base.
Society is made up of the base. This is like the foundations of a building. Marxists say the economy (the means of production is the base).
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The superstructure.
The rest of the building which is built on the foundations. These are all of the other parts of society e.g. culture, the state, education. The economic base determines (shapes) the superstructure.
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False Consciousness.
The working class may suffer from false consciousness, not understanding their true class position. False conciousness is a concept derivded from Marxist theory of social class.
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Health arguments and Marxism- Mode of production.
Either directly in terms of industrial diseases and injuries, stress-related ill health, or indirectly through the wider effects of the process of community production within modern societies.
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Health arguments and Marxism- Level of distribution.
Income and wealth are major determinants of peoples standard of living- where they live, their access to educational opportunities, their access to health care, their diet and thier recreational opportunities.
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The Inverse Care Law.
The poorest members of society with the most need for health care have the least access to health services.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Marx's theory of the development and society.

Back

Characterised human history in terms of the way in which ownership of production Was the most important single variable involved in the characteristaion of each distinct period in history. Identified 5 major epochs.

Card 3

Front

1) Primitive Communism.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

2)The Ancient Epoch (Slave Society).

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

3) Freudal Society.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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