Marine C R D- week 1 Nauru

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  • Created by: molly2312
  • Created on: 04-04-18 21:30
What does UNCLOS stand for?
United nations convention for law of the sea
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How far does the territorial sea extend and what is this?
12 m - coastal state exercises soverity over the resources
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How far does the Exclusive economic zone (EEZ) extend and what is this?
200 m- coastal state has sovergein rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving amanging the natural living or non-living resources and with regaurd to other activities for the economic exploitation ad exploration of the zone
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What are the High Seas?
It's resources are the "common heritage of mankind". The marine resources can be protected and safegaurded
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Which of the sustainble development goals (SDGs) regaurds the oceans and what does it say?
Goal 14- conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources.
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What components make up Social-ecological systems?
Resource system, Resource units, Governance system and users
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Where is Nauru?
Western Pacific- 50 miles south of the equator
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What is Nauru and how big is it?
Raised coral atoll- 8 square miles with a population of 7,500
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When was the island discovered, by who and how did they describe it?
18th century by european saliors (commander simpson) called it pleasant island due to its luxurious tropical vegataion
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Prior to this invasion what was the islands culture?
tradtional tribal organisation and one of the most advanced island cultures in the pacific (Shenon, 1995)
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How did the Phosphate develop?
in coral pinnacles from fossilised bird guano and a primeval stew of marine microorganisms
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When did mining begin and how large was the population at this time?
1906 ***** mining-1,000
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Was phosphate extraction constant?
flucuated througout time- 1940s Japanese occupation production non-existent
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What percentage of resources had been depleted by the 1990s?
61%
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How much is left of the Phosphate reserves now?
four fiths of the island have been mined out leaving pinnacles of 75 feet-secondary deposits remain of around 20 million tonnes
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What are the 3 main social impacts?
1. Islanders have no job skills 2. health problems 3. loss of traditional culture
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Are Islanders employed by the Phosphate industry?
no many naruans have no employable skills and workers from china and the rest of the pacific do the manual labour islanders will no longer do themselves
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Why does Nauru have such high rates of obesity and diabetes?
stopped farming land and used money to buy canned and processed foods
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What is the life expectancy?
men 50 and women 55
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What started the loss of island culture?
German occupation in 1888- banned traditional dancing as pagan now only the oldest members of the community remember how they should be preformed
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What is the biggest economic worry for the islanders?
Trust funds being squandered
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How much are the trust funds estimated at?
$500 mn to $1 bn
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What invest failure happen in 1993?
$2 mn invested into a failed London Musical co-wrote by one of the countries British Finical advisers
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What was another major economic investment failure?
AUS lawyer persauded trust to buy $60 mn in bougus letters of credit and bank notes- $48 mn recovered
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What areas of the island are inhabitable?
Narrow coastal fringe shaded by coconut palms
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How has the weather been impacted by Phosphate mining?
waves of heat that rise from the mined out plateu drive away rain clouds leaving the island sun-baked and in constant dr
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What does Rev James Aingmea, 84 think about the mining?
"wish they'd never discovered the phospahte2 "green everywhere"
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What was court case with Australia called?
Nauru Vs Austraila in international court of justice
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What was the date of the court case?
1987-1993
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Why was the court case filed?
Nauru filed a suit asking that AUS pay for the rehablitation of one-third of the island- community enviromnet was more than just commerical property to expolit
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How much was the settlement?
$135 mn
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What are the 4 rehabilitation options?
1. knock down pinnacles and relay topsoil 2. move to another island 3.live off income from AUS asslyum seekers 4. make island a wolrd heritage site
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How would topsoil help to rehabilitate the island?
use money to knock down pinnacles and then lay topsoil to coax pandanus, mangos and breadfruit trees to grow again- environmentalist say this is unlikely
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What options have islanders had to move islands?
1960s AUS gov offered an island off Queensland but refused as would not be given complete sovereignty- could buy a home from a pacific neighbour
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How many asylum seekers live on Nauru?
4,000
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What new approach should policy makers take?
adopt a learning process rather than a final solutionW (simple answers to complex problems)
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What paper was written by ******* in 2014?
Nauru Phosphate history and the resource curse narrative
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Instead of enhancing economic development what has mining done?
retarded nauruan development process
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What is the traditional tribal structure?
belong to tribe of his/her mother.
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What are the two classes of the two tired social system?
Headed by Temonible class with younger kinsmen belonging to Amengename
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What agreement was the British Phosphate commisoners formed under and when?
1919- Nauru island agreement
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What shares of Phosphate were allocated to who?
UK and AUS 42% and NZ 16%
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Where did islanders have to purchase food from?
Mining company store- BPC total control over life
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Why were the 2 major hillocks removed importamt?
heritage- spirtural meaning said to represent landing places of ancestors
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What caused racial tensions?
BPC bulit new housing for new contract labour but Nauruans needs overlooked
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What things did the Aus adminstration do?
new hospital for Nauruans and non-nauruans and long apartment buliding known as the Gilbertese settlement on the south-west shoreline
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What were the cost of the adminstration costs in 1966?
$100,000- 20% value of phosphate exports
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What paper was written by Gale in 2016?
The mined out phosphate lands of Nauru, equatorial western pacific
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How did the Phosphates from Nauru benefit AUS and NZ?
would not attained stauts as massive exportors of meat and dairy products without fertilzers
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What policy related to soil was adpoted in 1968?
stockpiling soil that was removed prior to excavating the underlying phosphate
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How much is stockpiled?
1,000,000 m3
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What will be done with this soil?
cover substrate of crushed limestone pinnacles and support agriculture- fertility limited
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Why would making the island a world heritage site be benefical?
recive millions of visitors per year- striking indigenous vegetation that should be perserved
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How far does the territorial sea extend and what is this?

Back

12 m - coastal state exercises soverity over the resources

Card 3

Front

How far does the Exclusive economic zone (EEZ) extend and what is this?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the High Seas?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which of the sustainble development goals (SDGs) regaurds the oceans and what does it say?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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