Mao -Topic 1: Why did China become a Communist state by 1949?

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  • Created by: chanthi_x
  • Created on: 23-01-16 17:39
Who were the vast majority of China's people and what was their position?
They were peasant farmers, who grew their own food and paid rent to their landlords.
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Who ruled China before 1911?
Qing Family
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Why were the Qing rulers overthrown in 1911?
The Qings could not stop the import of opium, their laws were too harsh, they could not feed everyone.
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What did the war lords do to China following this revolution?
They divided the country up into local mini-kingdoms of their own.
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Who were the Guomindang/Nationalist Party and what did they stand for?
Political party that ruled China after 1911 and they stood for: Nationalism, Democracy and Social Advance
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Who were the Communist party and what did they stand for?
Political party formed in 1921 and they wanted to make China a Communist State.
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Who were the leaders of each party?
Chiang Kai-Shek led the GMD once Sun Yat Sen died and Mao Zedong led the CCP in 1935.
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Why were relations good between the GMD and CCP at first?
From 1924 to 1927 they fought the warlords together and their initial aims were similar.
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Why did Sun Yat Sen's death lead to worse relations between the GMD and CCP?
Chiang took over but he was much less keen on the Communists than Sun Yat Sen had been.
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What was Chiang Kai-Shek's attitude to the CCP?
He was alarmed at their growing power so he soon turned against the CCP.
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What was the White Terror?
It was a bloody purge where Communists were arrested and executed.
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Why did the CCP have to hide in the Jiangxi mountains?
They had to escape the GMD.
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What were Mao's ideas to focus on gaining peasant support?
The majority of people living in China were peasants so he focussed on them to get lots of support.
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What was the Long March?
A year-long retreat-6,000 miles from the Jiangxi mountains to the Yannan Province.
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How was the Long March a military retreat?
It was used to escape the Nationalists.
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How was the long March a success for the CCP?
Many Chinese saw the CCP as heroes, it spread communist ideas, was good propaganda and impressed the peasants.
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What were the actions of the Japanese from 1936-1937?
They advanced further into China.
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How did Japanese actions affect the Chinese peasants 1936-37?
They stole their food, used them as slave labour, tortured, ***** and murdered them.
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How did the GMD fail to provide a strong response against the Japanese?
He stockpiled the supplies received from the British and Americans to use against the CCP later on so he lost the help from the USA.
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Why did the GMD ignore the Japanese threat at first?
Chiang concentrated on destroying the communists.
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What was the Scorched Earth Policy?
The destruction of crops, villages and equipment so that they would be of no use to the invaders.
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Why was the Scorched Earth Policy a mistake for the GMD?
It failed to stop the Japanese who got their supplies by rail and sea and it brought misery to millions of Chinese.
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How and why did Chiang Kai-Shek fail to use US aid?
Chiang stockpiled the weapons and didn't use them because he wanted to use them against the CCP.
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Why did the peasants not like the GMD?
The GMD rule was chaotic and often corrupt and they still made the peasants pay taxes during the war.
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How was the CCP response to the Japanese more effective?
The CCP built up their forces under the brilliant leadership of Lin Biao and they made excellent use of guerilla tactics
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What were some example of CCP Guerilla tactics that were used against the Japanese?
They cut telegraph wires, blew up railways and surprised Japanese troops in ambushes, capturing their weapons.
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Why did the peasants support the CCP during the war against Japan?
The Communists had a core of dedicated and able leaders who were not corrupt and who treated the peasants with courtesy and respect.
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What did the CCP do to help the peasants during the war with Japan?
They used Guerilla tactics to protect their villages and introduced Rent Reduction Laws.
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What was the situation of Mao and the CCP by 1945?
He had effectively driven the Japanese out of large areas of the Chinese countryside, he probably controlled up to 1/6th of the Chinese countryside and had the loyalty of over 100 million Chinese.
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Why was China's war with Japan over by August 1945?
The Japanese surrendered because the Americans dropped two atomic bombs on Japanese cities.
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Why did a Civil War break out in 1949 between the GMD and the CCP?
The Nationalists wanted to re-establish Nationalist rule.
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What was the PLA?
The People's Liberation Army
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What were the GMD weaknesses during the Civil War?
The Americans refused to continue supplying Chiang, many nationalists became tired of Chiang's rule and when Chiang captured the CCP base at Yenan, Mao had already left.
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Why did GMD troops and resources start to disappear?
Nationalist troops and officers began defecting to the PLA, taking their equipment with them.
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What were the CCP strengths that helped them win the Civil War?
Mao used Guerilla tactics and the Red Army gained the support of the middle classes and intellectuals who were sick of Chiang's rule.
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Where did the GMD flee as it became clear they had lost the Civil War?
Formosa (Taiwan)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Who ruled China before 1911?

Back

Qing Family

Card 3

Front

Why were the Qing rulers overthrown in 1911?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did the war lords do to China following this revolution?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Who were the Guomindang/Nationalist Party and what did they stand for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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