Management challenges associated with the development of coastal areas

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  • Created by: hamishc
  • Created on: 28-04-16 20:55
Where is the first area?
Dubai, UAE, Arabian Peninsula.
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Facts about Palm Jumeirah.
Contruction started in 2001, 500 families moved here in 2007, covers 5.7km', 29 new hotels in 2009.
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Facts about Palm Jebel Ali.
Stared in 2002, contains residential leisure and tourist developments, 70km coastline, 2000 villas, 1060 water access villas, used 175 mil m' material, only one branch occupied, cost £2 billion, 60% housing price drop due to lack of people.
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Facts about Palm Diera.
Plans started in 2007, construction started in 2013, 42km', 1400 retail stores, 250 room hotel, town housing, worlds largest aquarium.
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Environmental impacts.
Dredging of sand from offshore causes damage to habitat, irregular shape of coast caused irregular wave patterns (increase in erosion), heavy dredging barges stir up sediment (less sunlight reaches sea bed, no photosynthesis)
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Management concerns.
Water circulation must be maintained to supply clean and drinkable water to residents (160mm a year), sewage treatment requires state of the art plants with high setup/ maintenance costs, rock walls implemented are causing irregular wave patterns.
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Where is the second area?
Florida, southern USA.
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Give an introduction to Florida.
Sub-tropical climate (attracts international tourism), fastest growing GDP (7%) of any US state, high living standards, many leisure activities, increasing magnet for second homes.
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Give an introduction to Miami.
Fifth largest urban area in the USA, words number one cruise liner port, centre of finance for 1000's of multinationals, most of the city is built below 10m, linear city due to restricted growth by Everglades national park.
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Give an introduction to the Florida Keys.
Archipeligo of over 1500 islands, found in southern Florida (extending SW), linked by an overseas highway.
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Environmental impacts.
Algae blooms (eutrophication) linked to water pollution by agriculture, damage to fragile environment linked to agriculture and tourism, sediment loss due to dredging means more erosion, marine erosion due to heavy coastal engineering.
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Social impacts.
Rising sea levels put pressure on Miami since it is mostly built below 10m, growing tourism industry and urban sprawl of Miami putting pressure on Everglades national park.
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Management concerns.
Florida keys overseas highway had expensive set-up costs and is very expensive to maintain (especially due to rising sea levels), as sea levels rise there is an increasing need for expensive hard engineering methods to protect urban areas.
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Where is the third area?
St.Lucia, eastern Caribbean.
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What are the economic opportunities pitting coral reefs at risk?
Pollution, mining, overfishing, boats/ divers.
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Why are reef ecosystems valuable economic and environmental resources?
Provide foundations for many islands, provide barrier against storm waves, major tourist attraction, support fishing industry, contain rare species of fish used for medicine.
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What is the SMMA and what methods do they use to manage the coral ecosystem?
Aims to manage and maintain St.lucias marine environment. E.g. aims for agreement of coastal zones, regular water monitoring, public information, enforcement of rules, conflict resolution.
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Describe the distribution of the SMMA zoning.
Consisting of marine reserves, followed by multiple use areas (e.g. conservation areas, fishing areas, yachting areas).
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How successful has the SMMA project been?
There has been an increase in fish biomass and biodiversity, a reduction of damage to reef by human activities.
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How are reef ecosystems under threat?
Pollution from agriculture sewage and industry, damage by boats and divers, increase in sediment causes decrease in sunlight, overfishing, global warming means more damaging storms, mining of reefs.
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Card 2


Facts about Palm Jumeirah.


Contruction started in 2001, 500 families moved here in 2007, covers 5.7km', 29 new hotels in 2009.

Card 3


Facts about Palm Jebel Ali.


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Facts about Palm Diera.


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Environmental impacts.


Preview of the front of card 5
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