Male small animal reproductive tract

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What types of castration are there in dogs?
Open and closed
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Why are there different types of castration?
To avoid herniation due to how wide the inguinal canal is
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What is the difference between an open and closed castration?
In a closed castration there is no incision of the vaginal tunic
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What is cryptorchidism?
Undescended testes through the inguinal canal to scrotum
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What can cryptorchidism cause?
Infertility (body temperature is too hot for spermatogenesis), tumours and torsion
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Embryologically, where do testes start in the body?
Near the kidneys
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What are the functions of the male reproductive tract?
To produce: spermatazoa by spermatogenesis, testosterone and seminal fluid as well as a way to deliver sperm
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Why is the production of seminal fluid important?
It provides nutrients and acts like a buffer for sperm
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What is the main accessory gland in the dog?
The prostate gland
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What structures make the spermatic cord and testes?
Ductus deferens, testicular artery and vein (pampiniform plexus), testicular plexus of nerves, lymph drainage, connective tissue, visceral layer of vaginal tunic
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Why are the pampiniform plexus arranged the way it is?
Heat exchange
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How does sperm get into the ductus deferens from the testes?
Sperm from testes enters at the head of the epididymus then moves into the body and then the tail of the epididymus
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Where does maturation of sperm take place?
In the epididymus
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What does the cremaster muscle do?
Contracts testes more dorsally
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Does the ductus deferens have its own blood supply?
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Describe the vaginal tunic
The vaginal tunic wraps around the testes when it descends through the inguinal canal so there is a slight gap called the mesorchium. Other notable things are mesoepididymid, testicular bursa, vaginal cavity and mesoductus deferens
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What layers do you need to cut to reach the parietal vaginal tunic?
Skin, dartos muscle, external spermatic fascia then internal spermatic fascia
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What does the dartos muscle do?
Contracts if testicles get cold
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How do the male gonadal ligaments form?
Cranial gonadal ligament degenerates while the caudal gonadal ligament forms the proper ligament of the testes, the ligament of the tail of the epididymis and the scrotal ligament
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Which ligaments would you have to break in any form of castration?
The scrotal ligament
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Which ligament would you only break in an open castration?
Ligament of the tail of the epididymis
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What type of penis does the dog have?
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How is the glans divided?
The pars longa glandis and bulbus glandis
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Describe corpus spongiosum
Cavernous erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra
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Describe corpus cavernosum
Pair of cavernous bodies dorsal to penile urethra/corpus spongiosum tissue
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What attaches the penis to the ischial arch?
The crura
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What is the glans?
The distal part of corpus spongiosum
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What does the corpus cavernosa become distally in the dog?
Os penis
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How does an erection occur?
Function of venous engorgement. In an erect penis there is inhibition of the sympathetic tone so retractor penis relaxes and the penis can fill with blood. Ischiocavernosus, ischiourethralis and bulbospongiosus compress venous return
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Describe a flaccid penis
There is tonic contraction of smooth muscle in walls of cavernous spaces and retractor penis muscle is controlled by sympathetic nerves
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What is paraphimosis?
Inability to retract penis within prepuce
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What causes the copulatory lock in the dog?
The lock is the complete swelling of the bulbus glandis causing contriction of dorsal vein. Constiction of the vestibuli muscle also causes constriction of superficial vein of glans (vestibularis muscle is from the *****)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Why are there different types of castration?


To avoid herniation due to how wide the inguinal canal is

Card 3


What is the difference between an open and closed castration?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is cryptorchidism?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What can cryptorchidism cause?


Preview of the front of card 5
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