What were two external forces acting upon African states?
Increasing involvement by Europeans; increased trade with Europe, other parts of the world and within Africa
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Where was increasing involvement by Europeans furthest and fastest?
North and South Africa
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Where was increased trade most noticeable?
Particularly western and eastern coastal regions
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What does Jan Vasina Ecuador say about inter-continental trade?
"the leading actors, old and new, are responsible for historical change, not an impersonal force called intercontinental trade"
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What was the area of North Africa east of Morocco in 1801?
A set of provinces in Ottoman Empire 'ruled' from Istanbul
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What was the reality of the North African provinces of the Ottoman Empire?
Higher regional autonomy
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Egypt invaded by Napoleonic France
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Ottoman Muhammad Ali captured, virtual independence of Egypt from Ottoman Empire
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Muhammad Ali established capital of Egyptian Sudan, placing pressure on hte British
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French invade Algiers and they are involved in series of wars in what becomes Algeria
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What was significant about Muhammad Ali?
Believed a modern army did not just need weapons but also supporting structures
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Where was the Sokoto Caliphate?
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Where was the Sokoto Caliphate linked to?
Links with North Africa through Islam Reform movements
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When was the Sokoto Caliphate established?
After the jihad war (Fulani War) of 1804
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When did the leader of the Sokoto Caliphate retire, his son taking over?
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Was the Sokoto Caliphate stable in early nineteenth century?
Yes; neighbouring states established alongside
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What affected the societies along the western coast of Africa?
Commercial changes, most intense experience of intercontinental maritime trade
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What were most workers at slave posts?
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Important political and cultural players, often had western educations
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What did Afro-Europeans act as?
Missionaries and politicans
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When did Afro-Europeans decline in influence?
In the 1880s when Europeans arrived in larger numbers with more racist ideas
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'Crises of adaptation'
Structures created for capture and sale of slaves not suited to agriculture
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Where were the Mfecane wars?
Among the farming communities of south-east Africa
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What did the Mfecane Wars lead to?
Formation of a number of kingdoms, including the Zulu kingdoms
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How were the Zulu kingdoms carved out?
By standing armies
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Who led the Zulu kingdom before his assassination by a relative?
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What is significant about Mfecane Wars?
Seen as brutal but also as a symbol of black power in a region that would come to be ruled by whites
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What do some people argue about our view of Shaka?
Affected by his utilisation by whites as an image of justification for actions
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Who did the Cape Colony change rulership between?
Dutch and British
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When did the British confirm their rule of the Cape Colony?
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What was significant about British rule of the Cape Colony?
There were few British there
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What did Afrikaaners in the Cape Colony become increasingly aware?
Living under 'alien' British rule
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How many settlers from Britain came to southern Africa to from the white colony of Natal?
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What was one aspect of rule under the British that made Dutch settlers increasingly uncomfortable
Attempts to remove slave owning
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What was the Great Trek?
Immigration of Dutch settlers away from British possessed Cape Colony
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The Great Trek and formation of two Boer republics was relatively unimportant to the British until when?
Discovery of diamonds
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What was the principal social change in East Africa?
Growth of coastal towns
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What did the Swahili coastal culture in East Africa experience?
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How did Islam find its way inland in East Africa?
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What did those who had fled the Mfecane Wars to Central East Africa often use?
Methods of their attackers
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Many people arrived in Central Africa in the 1830s. Why?
Fleeing white settlement and effects of Mfecane Wars
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What did trade offer?
New sources of wealth and authority; sometimes combining with older forms of authority
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When was a turning point in African history during the nineteenth century?
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Why was the 1880s a turning point?
EURopean involvement with oerannexaation
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What must be remembered about the involvement of Europeans?
European power is one aspect, was not alwasy the most powerful historical process
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Was the wave of colonial conquest from the 1880s onwards inevitable?
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How much of Africa was under colonial control in 1870?
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How much of Africa was free of imperial control in 1900?
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What was the Berlin West Africa Conference?
Negotiations over the question of Africa
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What followed the Berlin West Africa Conference?
'Tidying-up' agreements between European powers in 1890s
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Was the partition of Africa swift?
In one respect yes
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What is important to remember about the partition of Africa?
The decision to partition may have been swift and relatively painless diplomatic policy but implementation on the ground was not
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Who was Egypt under the control of just prior to partition?
Successors of Muhammad Ali
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What did the successors of Muhammad Ali have to accept?
British control of Sudan under Governor Gordon
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When were British and French investors practically in control of the finances of modern day Egypt?
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When did the French take ownership of the Suez Canal?
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When did army seize control of Cairo?
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The French hesitated in 1881 over Egypt; what did Britain do?
Sent military expeditions
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When did British hve control of Egypt?
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Where did Germany declare interest in?
GErman East Africa; threat of war with African rulers
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By what year was almost the entire continent partitioned?
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When was Tripoli annexed to Italy?
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When was Morocco annexed?
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By what year were few places free?
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What were the important forces in the partition of Africa?
capitalism and competition
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What do Robinson and Gallagher describe as the official thinking of late Victorian imperialism?
"the collective mind of government"
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What was European interest in Africa?
Legitimate commerce and the abolitiion of slaery
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What were Europeans particularly interested in?
Commercial opportunities of riers such as Niger
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What can some missionaries be described as?
Agents of colonialim
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What is an interesting question regarding missionaries?
How far were missionaries agents of colonialism
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What does Reid argue about the partition of Africa?
Created political and moral framework in which conquest could take place
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When Sierra Leone was established, what was significant about Freetown?
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What was significant about Freetown and Sierra Leone?
Former slaves could live Christian lives; Americans (Liberia) and French sent up similar projects
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How were conversion rates to Christianity in early yeasr?
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What was significant about Islam?
Continued to influence
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Why were African weapons inferior for a short window?
New Maxim gun (machine gun)
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By what decade had Europeans lost monopoly on modern guns?
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How does John Illife describe the implications of guns?
"a near-monopoly of modern weapons briefly made European conquest cheap enough in men and money to be possible"
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What did Hillaire Benoc write in 1898?
"Whatever happens we have got/ The Maxim gun, and they have not"
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What contributed to the hardening of racial attitudes?
Rebellion in Jamaica, Indian uprising, American civil war --> debate over race relations
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What did the Indian uprising and rebellion in Jamaica seem to show?
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What was the argument of missionaries?
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What did the persistence of the slave trade and instability of states appear to show?
The idea that African societies were flawed; if going to be involved commercially will have to take control
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When can the characteristics of early colonial rule be seen up to?
1930s - the Great Depression and the Second World War caused marked changes in the nature of colonial rule
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What does the state do?
Deals with other states, provides services, collects tax, makes the law and enforces the law
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Is the role of a state static?
No, will change over time
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At the end of the 19th century and the start of the 20th century what can be said about the role of the state?
DID Less than they do today
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Do historians agree over the state?
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How does Fred Cooper say that colonial powers differed from other forms of domination?
"effort to reproduce social and cultural difference"
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What does Fred Cooper say that colonial conquest emphasized?
"the conquered remained distinct; he or she might try to learn and master the ways of the conqueror but was never quite there"
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What was colonial rule marked by?
Ideas about trusteeship
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What did colonial powers increasingly move away from?
The idea of assimilation - aiming instead for association
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Why might colonial powers claim a territory?
To prevent another territory from doing so
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What was the advice given in Southern Rhodesia?
"Get to know your district, and your people. Keep an eye on them, collect tax if possible, but for God's sake don't worry hedaquarters"
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What does the advice given to colonial administrators in Southern Rhodesia suggest?
Local staff, whether European or African, were simply to avoid trouble
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Were subordinate African officials salaried?
No but some had more latitude in what they did than others
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What does Illiffe say were the four main tasks for colonial workers?
Maintain power, collect tax, recruit forced labour, judge cases and administer laws
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Colonies were expected to pay for themselves - needed to be able to pay for administration
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What was thought about tax?
Educational - forced Africans to take part in cash economies
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Recruit forced labour
Kind of labour tax - collect without causing unrest
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What did harsh administration mean?
There was often violence
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In French colonies before 1914 every man was required to work unpaid for at least how many days a year?
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Judge cases and administer laws
Often involve destroying or subordinating existing forms of justice
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Could enforcing European justice be dangerous
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What could troops from one area be used to do?
Police another area
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What did Europeans think about martial races?
Thought that certain people were more wrlike and would make better soldiers
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What could early British and French involvement in West African towns in the 1700s involve?
Setting up town council and electing mayors
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In Freetown in the 1800s what did the British appoint?
Mayor to set up municipal government
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After 1900 what was no town annexed by the British given until the 1950s?
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What did the French provide to the inhabitants of four coastal towns of Senegal?
Ability to send a deputy to the assembly in Paris
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Deputies sent from Senegal to Paris were usually French or Afro-French - name someone who wasn't
Blaise Diagne elected in 1914 and sent to the National Assembly
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At what date did the ability to send delegates to the National Assembly stop?
No territory gained after 1880 was gien these riogts
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When was the union of South Africa?
1910 after the Anglo-Boer wars joined the two British colonies to Boer eareas
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What was significant about hte elected representatives for South Africa?
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What does direct rule involve?
Having Europeans as high up the chain of command as possible
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What is needed even in direct rule?
Clerks and often interpreters
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What did the Sokoto Caliphate have?
Pragmatic approach to government
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Who was crucial to the system of government used in the Sokoto Caliphiate after conquering?
Lord Lugard, a commander in the British army who conquered the Sokoto Caliphate
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When was the book, influential among British officials, written by Lord Lugard published?
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Outside of the Sokoto Caliphate, what did ruling through indirect rule involve?
Invention of tradition
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When was Lugard tasked with uniting northern and southern Nigeria?
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What was the issue with southern Nigeria?
Lacked the system of caliphate so had to create ideas
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What was done in south Nigeria?
Restored structure of a previous empire in the south; transformed/created in order to use
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What did the French in Morocco and Tunisia want to use?
Chiefs who they saw as having power
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By what decade was the system of indirect rule widespread?
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Give an example of how the strict segregation between Africans and Europeans was established
Sometimes even trying to prevent European immigration into a colony; contradictions and tensions of indirect rule
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What was continually needed as point of interface between Europeans and Africans?
Secretaries and translators
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What are settler states?
Colonies with a stable European population
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Give an example of settler states
Algeria, South Africaq
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What did settlers in settler states want?
High levels of authority over the African population and did not want to give more power over to chiefs
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What were the new growth points in early colonial economies?
Towns, mines, African cash crop forms
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What could regions provide that shows the changing nature of economies?
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Richard Reid identifies three broad economic models. What are these?
Indigenous cash crop economies, settler cash crop economy, industrial urban economy
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Indigenous cash crop econommy
Broad band across the tropical middle of America involving African peasants
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Settler cash crop economy
Ran by Europeans in settler colonies
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Industrial urban economy
Centred in mining
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Where were industrial urban economies especially important?
Southern and central Africa
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What tied industrial urban economies to overseas markets?
Railways the Europeans built
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What are historians becoming increasingly aware?
Many of the ethnic divisions that are today a concrete reality did not exist, even in a conceptual form, before the end of the 19th Century
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What does Patrick Harries argue about the definitions and codifications of the Tsonga language?
was "a product of nineteenth century European discourse rather than a reflection of local reality"
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Did Berthoud ever claim that his linguistic divisions were scientifically defined?
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What did Berthoud think about the Ronga?
Were not a specific tribe, 'their name is a geographicaal designation, rather than an ethnographic one'
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Where were the Ronga?
In the southern area of south-east Africa
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Where was Tsonga spoken?
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What did Berthoud stress about language?
Mobility of oral langage
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What was the view of late nineteenth century nationalism regarding linguistics?
Linguistic relationships expression of shared social, and later political, unity
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Did Berthoud agree with the late nineteenth century nationalist view regarding linguistics?
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Give an example of how Berthoud shows the falseness of 'the system that determines race according to their language'?
Baloyi clan was a Tshwana tribe that transformed itself into a Thonga one and at the time spoke Gwamba
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What did Social Darwinism tell the missionary pioneers?
The African societies around them were at an early stage of human evolution
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What stage did social Darwinism suggest African societies were at?
Roughly equiv. in terms of development to the clans of pre-feudal Europe
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What did the missionaries use?
Social terminology of the European classicists; therefore the different African 'clans' made up the 'nation' or 'tribe'
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By the early 1880s what had Gwamba developed from?
No longer just the term used to describe a hypothetical linguistic group; had come to be a people conceptualised due to linguistic affiliation as a 'tribe' or 'nation'
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What does Harries say about the imposition of European world view and logic on the peoples surrounding them?
'the missionaries had created linguistic and political categories that were derived more from their own epistemology than any local social reality
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What did A.W. Norris in a magazine published by schoolteachers in colonial Zanzibar in 1930 say?
"Educated Africans are continually agitating to be given more responsibility"
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What did A.W. Norris (1930) say about giving educated Africans more responsibility?
"that you will be unable to take that part unless and until you have inoculated in your own people a pride of race. Without this, education is useless."
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Where does Mahmood Mamdani trace racialization back to?
Single source - actions of the colonial state
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What does Norris say about Mamdani tracing racialisation back to just the colonial state?
"The result is a view of colonial intellectual history in which Europeans are the only actors, inventing and imposing identities as prompted by administrative needs"
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What is the functionalist assumption about the origins of race?
If 'race' is assumed to arise solely from scientific doctrines then presence in the non-western world must be traced solely to the West
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Who are the functionalist assumptions about the origins of race often traced to?
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What does Glassman remind about race and the dangers of seeing it as created by Western presence in Africa?
"In tying race so mechanistically to the structures of global capitalism, such analyses remove it from the realm of intellectual history."
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What does Glassman think it is misleading to talk about?
Two distinct spheres of discourse and colonial state's domination of its subjects consciousnesses
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Glassman disputes two discrete spheres of discourse on ethnicity; what are these?
One colonial and one indigenous
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What do pan-Arabist teachings about histry reinforce?
Local distinctions of civilisation/barbarism that accentuate implicit racial undertones
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Was pan-Arab nationalism different from other forms of nationalism in its compatibility with the idea of race?
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Was the 'other', the African barbarian, strictly speaking defined racially?
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Who was a mstaarabu in Arabic sense?
Someone who became Arab
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Was there anything particularly 'Arab' about slavery in Zanzibar?
No, many masters were Africans
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How does the misunderstanding, thinking that slavery in Zanzibar perpetuated by Arabs, come from?
Local usages - clam of Arab status connoted descent from planter elite and absence of slave ancestry
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What does Glassman say about tribalism?
It is "plainly ahistorical to view tribalism as primordial"
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Although radicalisation of Zanzibari ethnic thought was modern process what does Glassman suggest?
"the modes of thought subjected to the process were neither invented from whole cloth nor imported anew, many had been inherited from precolonial intellectual traditions"
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What does Glassman say is contrary to primordialist assumptions?
Traditions had always been subject to innovation, adaptation ns xhNFW
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Although distinctions between Shirazi and other islanders were rooted in precolonial thought, what must be said?
Meanings had changed dramatically in the nineteenth century and twentieth century
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Change in distinctions between Shirazi and others - 19th century
Rise of the plantation sector and Omani rule
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Change in distinctions between Shirazi and others - 20th century
Imposition of the colonial state and the rise of nationalist politics
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Who were the Kagaru?
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In 1975 how many Kagaru people were there?
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Where do the Kagaru inhabit?
Small area in eastern Tanzania
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How was indirect rule rationalised by Europeans?
Natives best understood other natives so could understand them, indigenous political institutions, staffed by natives
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Rationalisation of indirect rule - Indigenous political institutions
Incorporated into a Western bureaucratic administration --> provide useful points of articulation between native populations and white imperialists
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Rationalisation of indirect rule - staffed by natives
Lower cost in funds and European manpower
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What did indirect rule fail to recognise?
African societies as functional entities in which various institutions were interdependent
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What is a criticism of indirect rule given by Beidelman?
"Why then claim to preserve a traditional political institution while promoting radical changes in the sectors of economy, education, transportation and religion"
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What did the Kaguru leader at Mamboya eventually become?
Paramount chief of most of Ukaguru, first under Germans and then under British
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Why was the Kaguru leader at Mamboya chosen?
Fact situated at geographical centre of Ukaguru was an important factor
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How was the chieftaincy of the Kaguru leader at Mamboya legitimated?
An appropriate clan legend soon developed
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What can be said about the rise of the Jumbe clan of the Kaguru people?
Chief's position was greatly enhanced by colonial rule
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What did the C.M.S. missionaries in Ukaguru seek to do?
Convert Kaguru leaders, especially the chief at Mamboya and his likely heirs
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Were the C.M.S missionaries particularly successful?
No, although chief did take part in foundation laying ceremony for first church at Mamboya
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How did the Jumbe clan see the fact the chief took part in foundation laying ceremony?
Not as expression of religious views (pagan) but as demonstration as role as sponsor and protector of strangers (wageni wakwe)
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When did the chief of Kaguru at Mamboya have less power?
During German rule - the two alien African officials (akidas) had more power
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Alien African officials employed by Germans, collecting taxes and judging infractions of the law - one at Mamboya and one in lowlands of Mvomi
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What were akidas usually?
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What did the C.M.S. missionaries push for the replacement of the akidas by?
Local Christian converts
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Why did C.M.S missionaries tend to support the chiefship?
Fear over possible Muslim influences
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Did the C.M.S. missionaries ever manage to convert a chief into the church?
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When did Chief Saidi (Kaguru) die?
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When did Saileni succeed to chieftainship of the Kaguru people?
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What was significant about the time that Saileni served as chief of the Kaguru?
Was during the heyday of German rule
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What does Saileni appear to have been held responsible for?
Enforcing conformity and co-operation with other officials, rather than actual administration which was task of akidas
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What did many Kaguru claim about chief at the time of Saileni?
Was really only a middleman or powerbroker between the local Kaguru and the Germans
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Who were the first two Kaguru paramount chiefs?
Saidi and Saileni
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Could Saidi and Saileni read and write?
No - illiterate
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What was significant about the fact that the first two paramount chiefs of the Kaguru were illiterate?
Could not take part in ordinary administrative procedure under the Germans
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What happened when the British took over Tanganyika?
At first continued the local organization employed by the Germans, including use of akidas
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When did the British appoint Saileni's son as the akida at Mamboya?
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What did the British do after appointing Saileni's son as an akida?
Reconfirmed him as a paramount chief when they instituted a formal Native Authority and disbanded akida system
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Who was the third paramount chief of the Kaguru?
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Was Saidi Methusalah literate?
Yes and some suggest that this was a factor in British readily agreeing to appoint him
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What did District Commissioner Coke, writing in Kilosa District Book in 1942 reflect on?
Prevailing view of local administrators over Ukaguru that the idea of chiefship was mistake foisted upon them by unrealistic central administration which did not understand local tradition
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District Commissioner Coke (1942) on Ukaguru
"it was merely due to historical accident and political convenience that this family has been established by the British government in a position of chiefship that never previously existed in Kaguru tradition"
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When was the chiefship abolished?
By the new African independent government in 1962, less than a year after independenceW
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Who was the fourth chief of the Kaguru?
Yustino (deposed 1944)
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Who was the fifth chief of the Kaguru)
Malanda (deposed 1962)
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How popular was Malanda?
Very unpopular in last years, married widow of one of his sister's sons which Kaguru saw as tantamount to witchcraft
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What does the history of the chiefship in Ukaguru reflect?
Negative side of indirect rule
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What did Sir Donald Cameron say in speech shortly after becoming governor of Tanganyika, advocating adoption of indirect rule?
"if we preserve the tribal authority... we immediately give the natives a share in the government of the country, and that, moreover, on lines which they themselves understand and can appreciate"
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What did Sir Donald Cameron also say about tribal authority?
"To break down the only form of discipline and authority the natives know and then to cry out that they are rapidly becoming more and more un-disciplined is merely to admit failure"
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What does the Kaguru case illustrate?
Worst dangers inherent in the views of those such as Sir Donald Cameron and Lord Lugard about stereotypes of African traditional political systems
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What can be said about African societies before colonial rule?
Many had no centralised political system, to use anthropological jargon, many were "acephalous segmentary societies"
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What is curious about British support of chiefship of Kaguru?
Chiefship never incorporated into matrilineal ideology was given matrilineal trappings to facilitate administrations
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What did the British create in the case of Kaguru?
Four subchiefs each associated with clan lucky enough to 'own' land in the area where a court was erecte
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As Cameron observed, what were chiefs to be used to do?
Opposethe younger, educated Africans
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Before African independence what did British administrators encourage local chiefs to do?
Oppose activities of the African Nationalist Party (TANU)
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What did Nigerian historian J.F.A. Ajayi depict colonialism as in 1969?
As a mere episode in the grand sweep of African history - "While the lives of some communities were profoundly affected, others had hardly become aware of the Europeans' presence before they began to leave"
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How did the Nigerian novelist Wole Soyinka describe the partition of Africa?
"at the Berlin conference, the colonial powers that ruled Africa met to divide up their interests into states... like some demented tailor who paid no attention to the fabric, colour or pattern of the quilt"
226 of 339
What is significant about the Germano-British agreements to partition the trans-Volta in the late nineteenth century and subsequent repartition of the German Togoland between Britain adn France after WWI?
Were not even made on African soil
227 of 339
Paul Nugent contests conventional wisdom about African boundaries. What are the aspects of this?
ethnic boundaries, European constructions, paper border, border communities
228 of 339
Paul Nugent - European constructions
European constructions owed more than is commonly thought to indigenous precedents
229 of 339
Paul Nugent - Paper border
Act of creating paper border set in motion a local dynamic in which populations became actively engaged in inscription of contours on ground
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Paul Nugent - ethnic identities
Product of the border, rather than existing prior to partition. Far less salient than local and territorial identities.
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Paul Nugent - border communities
Far from being marginal, border communities have been active participants in the shaping of national cultures and contours of state
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What meant that the two halves of Togoland were never formally colonial possesions?
Special status as League of Nations Mandates
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In what respect did Togoland, though League of Nations Mandates, act as colonial possessions?
Boundaries functioned like those drawn across Africa in the latter decades of the 19th century
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How was the southern border between the Gold Coast and German Togoland drawn up?
Consisted of straight line from coast to 6 10degrees north latitude and then westwards until struck left bank of Aka river
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What were the British forces struck by when they arrived in Togoland?
Warmth of reception. Yendi, capital of Ya Na, met by joyful greeting an a formal request to be reunified with the rest of the Dagomba people 'under the flag and the protection of His Majesty King George V'
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What were the trans-Volta borderlands characterised by?
Considerable measure of political pluralism and cultural diversity in the nineteenth century
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What was the Native Administration Ordinance (1933) togoland?
Divisional chiefs serve on a joint state council but would retain own separate tribunals. Sub-divisional chiefs have to forfeit tribunals.
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What did Ralph Anster describing the period following the establishment of German rule in Buhaya as?
'the golden age of the Haya chiefdoms'
239 of 339
What was 'being Asante'?
240 of 339
When was the Asante state seized and dismantled by Britain, meaning that the fluid process of being Asante ended?
Turn of the century
241 of 339
What remained after dismantlement of Asante state?
Akan social and cultural base, which sometimes found political expression
242 of 339
What was the significance of the Akan social base during the twentieth century?
Lacked any organic connection to the state, much less to the set of historical actors both British and Asante who were involved in inventing Asante after 1900 (Jean Allman)
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What does Michael Crowder say about the differences between French and British styles of indirect rule?
"There were such fundamental differences between the French and British systems that,even if both did make use of 'chiefs' it is not possible to place the French system of native administration in the same category as British indirect rule
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What did indirect rule repose primarily on?
Chief as executive
245 of 339
Was it necessary to preserve the institution of chieftaincy?
Not as such, important to encourage local self-government through indigenous political institutions whether single executive authority or council of elders
246 of 339
What did the French do in the interests of conformity
Divided the country up administratively into cantons
247 of 339
What was significant about the locations of French cantons?
Frequently cut across pre-colonial political boundaries
248 of 339
Did chiefs in French Africa remain chiefs of their old political units?
No, became chiefs of the new cantons - sometimes the two did coincide
249 of 339
What did the French sometimes do deliberately?
Break up the old political units - e.g. Futa Jallon
250 of 339
What was French policy in the Futa Jalon?
'suppression of the chiefs and the parcelling out of their authority'
251 of 339
What was significant about the chiefs the French used?
Were not necessarily those who would have been selected according to customary procedures - often those who had shown loyalty to the French or had some education
252 of 339
What were the British scrupulous in
Respect for traditional methods of selection for chiefs
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How did the French conceive of chiefs as?
Agents of the administration
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What were the French more concerned with than legitimacy with regards to chiefs?
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What did the Arrete of 28th December 1936 say in French Equatorial Africa?
Gave terms for selection of chiefs, section (v) - "from amongst local civil servants (clerks, interpreters...) who have worked satisfactorily for at least four years in the public service"
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What did the people of the Ivory Coast do if a chef de canton was selected with no traditional right to rule?
Elected in secret a real chief
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On a not very large scale, what did the French give some encouragement to?
Formation of a native elite, absorbed into the territorial and federal administrative services
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What did the British actively discourage?
Formation of a class of Europeanized Africans, particularly at the level of the central colonial administration
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Who became the colonial chiefs in the Belgian Congo?
Pre-colonial and pre-Lunda rulers called "owners of the land"; paternalism
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Were colonial chiefs in the Belgian Congo automatically hated or even distrusted by villagers?
No - recognised that someone had to be in charge of mediating with new rulers
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Give an example from the Belgian Congo that shows that chiefs that co-operated with colonialism could still be respected
Popular song in Chief Nkuba's area proclaimed "We have chiefs who are clever enough to speak in front of a white"
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What was the issue of the Belgian administration in Mweru-Luapula?
Mix of expatriate administration, roaming police forces and politically weak chiefs
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What was a similarity between the British and the Belgians in the Congo?
The British selected and invested certain chiefs with the authority to administer an area
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What did the villages in the Congo do?
Selected a few clan elders to deal with Belgian colonial officials
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How did negotiations with the British occur in Northern Rhodesia?
Mwata Kamzembe negotiated directly with the British and insisted on his political authority
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Since the late 1960s and early 1970s what have "tribes" been replaced by in the literature?
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What does Elliot D. Green criticise about historical study on Africa?
There has been little attempt to understand the concept of nationhood as applied to pre-colonial Africa
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What does Elliot D. Green claim about the pre-colonial African kingdom of Buganda?
Argues that there are good reasons to claim that Buganda constituted a pre-colonial nation-state
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Where was the pre-colonial African kingdom of Buganda?
On the northern shores of Lake Victoria in the centre of what is modern-day Uganda
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What does one recent data set on ethnic fractionalization say about Uganda?
Records shows that Uganda is one of the most ethnically fractionalized countries in the world
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What is fractionalization?
Computing that two randomly drawn individuals are from the same group or not
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What did Elie Kedourie say about the relationship between ethnicity and nationalism?
Dismissed ethnicity as "highly plastic and fluid" and therefore unsuitable as a basis for national identity
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What does Anthony Smith see as essential characteristics of ethnic groups, or ethnic communities as he calls them?
"a collective proper name, a myth of common ancenstry, shared historical memories, one or more differentiating elements of common culture, an association with a specific 'homeland', and a sense of soldiarity for significant sectors of the population"
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Does Anthony Smith consider any one element as essential?
No, except perhaps for a proper name
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What does Adrian Hastings argue that an ethnicity is?
"an ethnicity is of its nature a single language community"; sees ethnicity as defined by a common language
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How is a belief in common descent apparent in pre-colonial Buganda?
Emphasis the Baganda put on Kintu, the first Kabaka (king) of Buganda
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What is the name for the Bugandan people?
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What is significant about the name Buganda?
Had for centuries been used to describe the kingdom centred around the county of Busiro and along nearby shores of Lake Victoria
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What was clear to the British when they arrived in Buganda?
Baganda shared a common language spoken among all members - Luganda
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Although Luganda is most similar to Lusoga, the spoken language of the Busoga region east of Buganda, what must be said?
Not similar enough for attempts to be made to merge them
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What does Elliott D. Green suggest about pre-colonial Buganda?
Qualifies as ethnic group and a nation
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What is an example of pre-colonial ethnic identity in West Africa?
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What was more difficult about French?
Could not make use of 'Imperial Monarchy' and had to incorporate Africans into republican tradition
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As monarchical ideology was not enough in itself to justify colonial governance what did the British administrators do?
Set about inventing African traditions for Africans
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What was Lordy Bryce struck by in Africa?
White southern African enthusiasm for cricket, 'the national game'
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What does Ranger say about invention of tradition?
"In Africa, too, whites drew on invented tradition in order to derive the authority and confidence that allowed them to act as agents of change"
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What was one way that Africans sought to draw on European invented traditions?
Aspirant African bourgeoise sought to make its own the range of attitudes and activities that defined the European middle classes
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What do studies of nineteenth-century pre-colonial Africa emphasise?
Far from there being a single 'tribal' identity, most African moved in and out of multiple identities - defining themselves as subject to chief, member of a cult, part of a clan, initiate in professional guild etc
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What does Wim van Binsbergen say about tribes?
"Modern Centrla Africa tribes are not so much survivals from a pre-colonial past but rather largely colonial creations by colonial officers and African intellectuals
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What does Ranger say about 'custom' in the Tanganyika corridor?
"much more of an invention than it was a restoration"
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What does Ranger say about customary law, customary land rights, customary political structure etc?
Invented by colonial codification
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What does John Iliffe see as lying at the heart of indirect rule in Tanganyika?
"the notion of the tribe"
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Refining the racial thinking comon in German times, what did administrators believe?
Every African belonged to a tribe, just as every European belonged to a nation
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What were tribes seen as?
Cultural units 'possessing a common language, a single social system, and an established common law"
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What is important to remember?
African participation needed - British believed Tanganyikans belonged to tribes so Tangyikans created tribes to function within the colonial framework
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What did John Ilife say about the reasons for African manipulation of invented custom?
"Africans wanted effective units of action just as officials wanted effective units of government"
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What did one officer of Tanganyika conclude about the system of indirect rule?
Main supporers were the progressivechiefs
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What does Ilife describe progressive chiefs and mission-educated Africans combining in?
Programme of 'progressive traditionalism'
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Why did elders tend to appeal to 'tradition'?
Defend their dominance of the rural means of production against challenge by the young
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Why did men tend to appeal to 'tradition?
In order to ensure that the increasing role which women played in production in the rural areas did not result in any diminution of male control over women as economic assets
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Why did paramount chiefs and ruling aristocracies in polities that included numbers of ethnic groups and social groupings appeal to 'tradition'?
Maintain or extend control over their subjects
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Why did indigenous populations appeal to 'tradition'?
In order to ensure that the migrants who settled amongst them did not achieve political or economic rights
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What does Chanock argue about the invention of 'customary law'?
Was part of "a transformation in African institutions rather than a continuity"
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When Ranger reimagined the subject what did he move away from the notion of invention towards?
"towards the notion of 'imagination'
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How did Ranger come to view Zimbabwean ethnicity?
From invention to imagination
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What is the primordialist interpretation of ethnicity which Vail says is in ascendancy?
Argues Africans were badly affected by the disruptive socio-economic and political changes of late nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Pre-capitalist and pre-colonial hierarchies and elements of order undermined by capitalism and colonialism
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What does primordialist interpretation of ethnicity see Africans as doing?
In a hostile world seeking security through invocation of a lost past of firm values
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What is one viewpoint towards ethnicity?
That ethnicity is primarily the result of a history of 'divide-and-rule' tactics employed by colonial governments
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What is a second interpretation of ethnicity, especially prominent in the 1950s and 1960s?
Members of various cultural groups left their isolated rural areas and interacted with each other in urban or industrial locales, froming stereotypes - strengthening cultural defined distinctions
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What are the primordial interpretation of ethnicity, as seen by Vail?
Appeal seems insufficiently definite to explain relevance - why would be comforting? How to explain looking to the past yet accepting western education and willingness to change? Puts African ideas into 'unconvincing stasis'
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What does Spear say limited colonial power?
Chiefs' obligation to ensure community well-being to maintain the legitimay on which colonial authorities depended
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What does Spear have to say about ethnicity?
"ethnicity reflected long-standing local political, cultural and historical conditions in the changing contexts of colonial rule"
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How have 'traditional' African institutions came to be seen?
Invention of colonial authorities and missionaries colluding with African elders to establish colonial hegemony
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What do analyses of the 'making of customary law' show?
Colonial authorities, missionaries and African elders cobbled together local customs, colonial law, Christian morality and administrative regulations,codified them, gave penal and corporal sanctions and made them enforceable
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What do studies of the 'creation of tribalism' show?
Territorially defined political units supplanted earlier fluid social groups and were given substance by standardised written languages
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What must be unpicked according to Spear?
'the assumed dichotomy between African tradition and European modernity to see how each was interpreted and deployed by Europeans and Africans alike'
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What does Spear draw attention to?
Economic aspects; "colonial authorities were making new economic demands on Africans to sacrifice their land to settlers, work away from home and produce new crops, all of which dramatically affected the local lineage politics"
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What was the main text regarding invention of tradition and what is significant?
Ranger's 'The invention of tradition in colonial Africa' (1983) but within a decade, Ranger himself criticised his earlier analysis in less-cited follow up
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In his subsequent criticism what fault did Ranger find with the idea of invention?
Invention, he noted, implied a conscious construction of tradition, focusing on colonial power and agency. Essentialized tradition and disregarded historical processes as reinterpretation and reformation. Focus on invention - Af as gullible
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What was Benedict Anderson's term that Ranger adapted in criticism of his earlier piece?
Imagined - better conveys what he now saw as multi-dimensional, interactive historical processes
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How does Spear criticise Anderson's concept of 'imagined communities'?
Neglects the economic, social and political factors that help shape identities and the complex process of reinterpretation and reconstitution of historical myths and symbols to define them
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How does Jan Vasina view traditions?
As powerful and enduring endogenous process, far from being timeless, traditions represent the "fundamental continuities which shape the futures of those who hold them"
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What is one contradiction of indirect rule? (Spear)
If colonial administrators were to capitalise on the illusion of traditional authority, their rule was limited by the need of those authorities to maintain their legitimacy
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What was indirect rule premised on?
Existence of culturally homogenous, territorial tribes ruled by chiefs. Customary law provided the prescriptive rules binding such units
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What do instrumentalists focus on?
Ways ethnicity was mobilised by migrant workesr to counter urban anomie, poverty, insecurity and competition. Nationalists build political constituencies and cultural elites enhance status
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What were instrumentalists unable to account for?
Specific content of ethnicity, especially in affective aspects that make it such a powerful and effective means of political mobilization
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How do primordialists seek to explain ethnicity's emotional power?q
Evoking a common history, culture and destiny in defence of group interests
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What did instrumentalists fail to account for?
When and why ethnicity was invoked and became so charge
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What did instrumentalists and primordialists share?
Both accepted the existence of ethnicity and ethnic groups as part of a fundamental social order
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What do constructivists focus on?
Degree to which modern expressions of ethnicity were invented by colonial authorities and African intellectuals in name of reproducing traditional social order
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What do constructivists argue about before colonial conquest?
Africans did not belong to fixed tribes but participated in fluid, overlapping social networks of kin, age-mates,clients,enighbours and chiefdoms Tribes product colonia rule
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What is the approach taken in Leryo Vail's collection?
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What did Leroy Vail find?
Ethnic groups were a product of specific colonial forces and agents as indirect rule created conditions for ethnic politics with European and African intellectuals crafting ethnic languages, histories and ideologies
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What does Terence Ranger assert about Shona ethnicities?
No roots in the pre-colonial past but were solely the creation of colonial administrators, missionaries and migrant workers
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What does Jean-Loup Amselle argue?
Ethnicity did not exist prior to colonialism but was a product of ethnological reason and racial politics applied by French administrators, missionaries and ethnographers to fix rigid, bounded models of African societies
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How can Amselle's views be summarised?
Modern ethnic claims are 'devoid of historical meaning prior to colonial conquest'
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What does the strict constructivism of Vail and Amselle fail to account for? (Spear)
Pre-colonial ethnicities and their influence on the development of modern politicized tribalism
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How do Patrick Harries and Robert Papstein view modern tribalism?
As a transformation of earlier ethnic forms as much as a colonial creation
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Other cards in this set
Where was increasing involvement by Europeans furthest and fastest?
North and South Africa
Where was increased trade most noticeable?
What does Jan Vasina Ecuador say about inter-continental trade?
What was the area of North Africa east of Morocco in 1801?