Making a case

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What study is used to show how facial recognition is used when interviewing witnesses?
Bruce et al
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What was the aim of Bruce et al?
to investigate the recognisability of internal and external features of a facial composite.
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What was the sample of Bruce et al?
1) 30 staff and students 2) 48 undergraduates
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What was the method of Bruce et al?
2 lab experiments: 1) 10 photos of celebrities and 40 composites. IMD of 3 groups: complete, internal or external. Asked to match photo to composite. 2) Photo array with foils. Had to pick photo that matched. Either internal or external.
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What were the findings of Bruce et al?
1) whole&external=33% matched accurately, internal=19.5% 2) External= 42% Internal= 24%
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What was the conclusion of Bruce et al?
External was more accurate, internal features are harder to reconstruct (even when familiar). Asking witnesses to describe internal features is most likely unreliable and inaccurate.
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What is weapon focus?
refers to the concentration of a crime witness’s attention on a weapon, and the resultant reduction in ability to remember other details of the crime. This is due to attentional narrowing, which Loftus believed is present due to evolution.
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What study is used to show that weapon focus affects identification?
Loftus et al
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What was the aim of Loftus et al?
to provide support for the 'weapon focus' effect when witnessing a crime.
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What was the sample of Loftus et al?
36 students; half paid and half given extra credit
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What was the method of Loftus et al?
2 conditions; 2 sets of slides shown of people queuing at taco bar, same bar one picture. Group 1 was shown a person handing over a cheque to cashier, Group 2 shown person pulling a gun. Tested by questionnaire & identification of person(&confidence)
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What were the results of Loftus et al?
No differences in questionnaire or confidence of identification. Identification: 38% correct in control, 11.1% in weapon. Eye fixation: Higher fixation on gun than cheque.
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What was the conclusion of Loftus et al?
Study suggests Ps spent longer looking at weapon and therefore had more difficulty with identification
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Why is obtaining correct information from witnesses so important?
One experienced judge has stated that incorrect eyewitness identifications have led to more miscarriages of justice than all other factors combined.
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What is the cognitive interview?
An interview technique designed to facilitate maximum recall.
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What are the 4 basic principles of the cognitive interview (Fisher)?
1. Interview similarity: similar environment to event 2) Focused retrieval: environment should allow concentration 3) Extensive retrieval: asking lots may trigger important facts. 4) Witness-compatible questioning: everyone is different
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What study shows how the cognitive interview can be used?
Fisher et al
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What was the aim of Fisher et al?
to test the cognitive interview in the field
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What was the sample of Fisher et al?
16 detectives from the Robbery divison
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What was the method of Fisher et al?
Field experiment with actual interviews of real witnesses by serving police detectives. Police asked to record selection of their interviews (88 recorded). Divided into 2 groups: 1 trained to use CI techniques.; interviews analysed (blindly)
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What were the results of Fisher et al?
After training, 47% more info elicited than before; 63% more than untrained group. No difference in accuracy.
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What was the conclusion of Fisher et al?
Strong support for the effectiveness of cognitive interview, as more information is obtained but no loss of accuracy and minimal increase in time taken.
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What study is used to show detecting lies when interviewing witnesses?
Mann et al
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What as the aim of Mann et al?
to test police officers' ability to distinguish truths and lies during police interviews with suspects.
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What was the sample of Mann et al?
99 Kent police officers, including detectives, trainers, traffic officers and response officers.
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What was the method of Mann et al?
Ps asked to judge truthfulness in real life interviews. 54 video clips of 14 suspects - expression and movement visable. Tested by 'truth of lie?', confidence level and cues they used.
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What were the results of Mann et al?
Experience in interviewing weakly positively correlated with truth and lie accuracy. Both levels of accuracy were greater than chance. Most common cues=gaze, vagueness, contradictions and movement.
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What was the conclusion of Mann et al?
More experience = higher accuracy. Also, better accuracy in Ps who used story cues, e.g. contradictions.
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What is interrogation?
Interrogation, simply put is a psychologically and in some cases physically aggressive way of interviewing suspects of crimes.
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What did Davis and Leo find about interrogation techniques?
Found that over 300 documented examples of false confessions being elicited from the use of interrogation techniques.
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Why did Inbau create The Reid Technique?
Inbau developed this approach to present a mass of information to a suspect in attempt to ‘persuade’ them to confess, leading them to believe that they had no other choice.
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What are the nine steps of The Reid Technique?
1) Direct confrontation, 2) suspect offered change to shift blame by being offered suggestions of what happened, 3) suspect never allowed to deny guilt, 4) ignore any reasons given why they could not have committed crime
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What are the nine steps of The Reid Technique?
5) Reinforce sincerity to ensure suspect is receptive by staying close, 6) subject becomes quieter &listens more, 7) pose 'alternative question' giving 2 choices (one more socially acceptable) but both admit guilt
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What are the nine steps of The Reid Technique?
8) Get them to admit guilt with witnesses and lastly, 9) get a signed confession.
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What are the 3 types of false confession suggested by Gudjohnsson?
1) Voluntary - freely confess 2) Coerced internalised - don't remember where they were and so lead to believe they committed the crime 3) Coerced compliant - confess due to being under high pressure
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What is the Gudjohnsson suggestibility scale?
Scale created by Gudjohnsson in order to quantify a persons susceptibility to giving false confessions, attempts to measure yield (susceptibility to suggestive questioning) and shift (changing their answers as a result of the interrogation process)
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What was the aim of Gudjohnsson's study?
to document a case of a false confession of a youth who was, at the time, distressed and susceptible to interrogative pressure.
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What was the sample of Gudjohnsson's study?
17 year old accused of two murders, known as FC.
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What was FC arrested for in Gudjohnsson's study?
Murders were of 2 elderly women with sexual assault, women's savings missing. FC arrested due to inconsistencies in his movements and spending. .
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What were the findings of the Gudjohnsson case study?
Interviews: Refused loyar by police, no forensic evidence, 14 hours of interviews with leading questions, similar to Inbau techniques. In prison, FC examined: no mental illness, scored 10 for suggestibility on Gudjohnsson's Scale.
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What was the conclusion of the Gudjohnsson's study?
Coerced compliant false confession, meaning confessed to avoid pressure.
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What is profiling?
Profiling=attempt to predict and create the likely traits and behaviours of an offender.
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What are the 3 aims of profiling?
Holmes and Holmes identified them as: 1) Social & Psychological Assessments - looks at personality, age, race, gender... 2) Psychological evaluation of belongings - looks at scene souvenirs. 3) Interviewing suggestions and strategies
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What is top down profiling?
Imposes a 'big picture' onto a crime scene (typology) and then looked for details in the scene that supported that hypothesis. Used by American FBI, produced from interviews of 36 convicted sexually-orientated murderers.
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What are the qualities of an organised offender?
lead an orderly life, will kill after stressor in their life, actions reflect planning and control (e.g. take weapon to scene), high intelligence
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What are the qualities of a disorganised offender?
more likely to commit crime in heat of the moment, no pre-planning, more forensic evidence, less intelligent and socially competent.
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What study is used to show the top down typology?
Canter et al
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What was the aim of Canter et al?
To test the reliability of the organised and disorganised typologies.
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What was the sample of Canter et al?
100 cases of serial killers in America, looked at the third crime committed by each.
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What was the method of Canter et al?
Content analysis using multi-dimensional scaling. Use of the Crime Classification Manual to classify crimes as organised or disorganised.
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What were the results of Canter et al?
Twice as many disorganised crime scenes, suggesting easier to identify or more common. Two behaviours co-occurred: body concealed and sexual activity in significant levels.
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What was the conclusion of Canter et al?
No distinction between 2 types of serial murder, all such crimes will have an organised element to them. Canter suggests that there is a lack of empirical validity. Better to study individual differences between offenders.
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What is the bottom up approach?
Takes the evidence and data from a crime scene and builds up a pattern piece by piece until a feasible conclusion is reached. Used by the British,
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What is the Circle Theory?
Based upon the assumption that criminals will commit crime in areas they know but not exactly where they live. The theory suggests that if all the crimes that an offender commit are placed in a circle, the offender is likely to reside in that circle.
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What are Commuters and Marauders?
Commuters = commit crimes in areas to which they have commuted, Marauders = commit crimes in areas around their home
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What study shows the use of the bottom up approach?
Canter and Heritage
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What was the aim of Canter and Heritage?
To identify behaviour patterns from similarities between offences.
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What was the method of Canter and Heritage?
Content analysis of 66 sexual offences, from various police forces, committed by 27 offenders to find 33 offence variables. Data subjected to smallest space analysis.
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What were the results of Canter and Heritage?
Variables central to 66 cases of sexual assault: vaginal intercourse, no reaction to victim, impersonal language, surprise attack, victim's clothes disturbed.
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What was Canter's five factor theory?
attempted intimacy with the victim, sexual behaviour, overt violence and aggression, impersonal interaction and criminal behaviour and intent. Found to be in 100% of **** cases, but less central.
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What was the conclusion of Canter and Heritage?
Usefulness of method it that all 5 variables now been shown to contribute to all sexual offences, but in different patterns. Useful in understanding how an offender’s behaviour changes and establish whether 2 crimes were commited by the same offender
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What case study is used to show creating a profile?
Canter's case study of John Duffy
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What was the offence of John Duffy?
Over 11 years, 23 women ***** at railway stations in/around London.
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When did Canter become involved with the case?
Became involved after reading about it in paper, approached by police to help with a profile.
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What did Canter do?
Started by mapping the cases. Canter believed that violent crime can be seen as a transaction between 2 people and so reveals how offender deals with people. 2 themes: how offender deals with victim, and how much dominance. JD=minimal amount=weaker.
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What was the preliminary profile of John Duffy?
Mid to late twenties, light hair, semi-skilled job that does not bring him into contact with public, private person, knowledge of railway system, considerable sexual experience, arrested at some point as crimes stopped. -narrowed it to 2 suspects
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What happened to John Duffy?
Arrested, serving life for **** and murders of several women. Confessed to many more and having an accomplish.
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What was the aim of Bruce et al?

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to investigate the recognisability of internal and external features of a facial composite.

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