Lungs and Lung Disease

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  • Created by: elyornais
  • Created on: 17-02-15 17:04
What happens during inspiration?
Intercostal muscles contract, ribs pulled upwards and outwards- increasing thorax volume, diapragm contracts, reduced air pressure so air forced in.
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What is the equation for pulmonary ventilation?
Tidal volume(dm3) * Ventilation rate (min-1)
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Give three characteristics of an exchange surfaces.
1.Large surface area 2.very thin for a short diffusion pathway 3.Partially permeable to allow selected materials to diffuse easily.
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Why are red blood cells slowed as they pass through pulmonary capillaries?
To allow more time for diffusion.
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How is pulmonary tuberculosis spread?
Air droplets breathed in.
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How does the immune system respond to TB?
White blood cells accumulate at site of infection to ingest the bacteria.
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What happens in the primary infection of TB?
Inflammation of lymph nodes.
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What do the macrophages do?
Engulf the bacterium and form tubercles.
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When does active TB occur?
When an individual is immunosupressed.
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What is pulmonary fibrosis?
When scars form on the epithelium of the lungs causing them to become irreversibly thickened.
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What effect does fibrosis have on gas exchange?
Oxygen cannot diffuse into blood as efficiently because of the lengthened diffusion pathway. Also, Reduced elasticity of the lungs means it is more difficult to breathe out.
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What chemical is released when triggered by allergens?
Histamine.
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What happens to the airways during an asthma attack?
Lining of airways become inflamed.
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Why are the airways constricted during an asthma attack?
Because the muscles surrounding the bronchioles contract.
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What is emphysema?
When the elastin in the lungs is permanently stretched and the air can't be forced out of the alveoli.
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What happens to the surface area of lungs with emphysema?
Decreases.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the equation for pulmonary ventilation?

Back

Tidal volume(dm3) * Ventilation rate (min-1)

Card 3

Front

Give three characteristics of an exchange surfaces.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why are red blood cells slowed as they pass through pulmonary capillaries?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How is pulmonary tuberculosis spread?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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