lungs

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what is the trachea?
it is an airway made of muscle, epithelial cilia cells and goblet cells.
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what do the rings of cartilage do?
support the trachea.
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what do the intercostal muscles do?
move the ribcage.
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what does the bronchi do?
produces mucus and has cilia cells.
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describe the bronchioles.
they have walls of muscle lined with epithelial cells, and they constrict to control the air flow in and out of the alveoli.
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describe the alveoli.
they are air sacs containing collagen and elastic fibres, and are the site of gas exchange.
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for gas exchange to happen efficiently, what must there be?
-a large SA. -a thin material. -a large concentration gradient/difference between gases on opposite sides.
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describe gas exchange in the alveoli.
O2 moves into the blood by diffusion and CO2 passes out of the blood by diffusion.
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how is the alveoli adapted?
-wall of alveoli is only 1 cell thick. -only one layer of flattened RBCs can pass through the capillary which increases SA. -blood flow through the pulmonary capillary maintains a concentration gradient.
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why are the lungs located inside the body?
the air isn't dense enough to support these delicate structures and they would dry out as a result of losing a great deal of water.
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why is gas exchange necessary?
because we need a constant supply of O2 to release energy in respiration and for CO2 to be removed.
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what is pulmonary ventilation?
the total volume of air moved into the lungs during one minute.
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what is tidal volume?
the volume of air normally taken in at each breath when the body is resting.
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what is ventilation rate?
the number of breaths taken in one minute.
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what is vital capacity?
the maximum amount of air moved in and out of the lungs.
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what is it proportional to?
the boys SA.
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describe a spirometer.
it measures the volume of air moving in and out of the lungs. It is a clear box 1/3 water and 2/3 O2
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what happens when you inhale/exhale?
-inhale: box moves down. -exhale: box moves up.
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what is the residual volume?
the small bit of air trapped in the alveoli
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what is the expiratory reserve volume?
the amount of air forced out after a normal breath.
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what can a spirometer be used to determine?
O2 consumption.
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what are the causes of TB?
-reduced immunity. -cramped living conditions.
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describe the transmission.
-in water droplets. -close contact. -milk (bovis only).
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what are the symptoms?
-persistent cough. -tiredness. -loss of appetite. -fever. -coughing up blood.
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how can it be treated/prevented?
-antibiotics. -more housing. -better education. -better nutrition. -BCG vaccine.
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what are the causes of pulmonary fibrosis?
-reaction to microscopic lung injury. -dest/asbestos in the alveoli.
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how is the symptom of shortness of breath caused?
-less O2 due to large volume of air space occupied by fibrous tissue. -increased diffusion pathway due to thickened epithelium. -tidal volume reduced due to loss of elasticity.
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how is the symptom of a chronic cough caused?
fibrous tissue creates obstruction in the airways and the reflex action is to cough.
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how is the symptom of chest pains caused?
-the pressure and damage from the mass of the fibrous tissue in the lungs. -damage due to coughing.
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how is the symptom of fatigue caused?
intake of O2 into the blood is reduced which results in the release of energy from cellular respiration being reduced.
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what effect does pulmonary fibrosis have on the lungs?
-lengthens diffusion pathway. -thickens epithelium. -the vital capacity reduced. -elasticity reduced. -difficult to ventilate lungs.
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what are the causes of asthma?
-allergens. -genetics.
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what effect does asthma have on the lungs?
-linings of airway inflamed. -epithelial cells secrete a lot of mucus. -fluid leaves capillaries and enters airways. -muscle surrounding bronchioles contracts and as a result airways are constricted. -difficult to maintain diffusion gradient.
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what does the constriction of the bronchioles, increased mucus, and inflamed ling cause?
difficultly breathing
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what happens when air passes through constricted bronchioles?
wheezing
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what does the inability to ventilate the lungs adequately cause?
a tight chest
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what is the reflex response to constricted bronchioles?
coughing
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what causes emphysema and how?
smoking - particles get trapped in the alveoli.
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how many smokers get emphysema?
1 in 5
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what effect does emphysema have on the lungs?
-elastin permanently stretched. -inability to force all of the air out of the alveoli (residual volume). -SA of alveoli reduced. -little, if any, gas exchange can take place.
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how can the symptom of shortness of breath be explained?
-loss of elasticity leads to difficulty exhaling air. -difficulty in inhaling fresh air containing O2. -reduced SA leads to reduced levels of O2 leads to more rapid breathing.
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how is the symptom of a chronic cough explained?
it is an effort to remove damaged tissue/mucus that can't normally be removed due to cilia on the bronchioles being destroyed.
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how is the symptom of bluish skin discolouration be explained?
low levels of O2 in the blood due to poor gas exchange.
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describe the diagnosis of emphysema.
emphysema develops over 20 years and is virtually impossible to diagnose until the lungs have become irreversibly damaged.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what do the rings of cartilage do?

Back

support the trachea.

Card 3

Front

what do the intercostal muscles do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what does the bronchi do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

describe the bronchioles.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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