• Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 04-11-15 21:09
What does Wilson argue is the definition of secularisation?
The process whereby religion loses its influence over the various spheres of social life,
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What are the three main explanations as to why secularisation might be occuring?
-Rationalisation, -Structural differentiation, -Social and cultural diversity,
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Give an example of a sociologist who supports that we have gone through a process of rationalisation in western society?
-Max Weber,
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How has rationalisation occured? (So what has made a better informed population/)
Both the growth of new technologies and the expansion of secondary and higher education.
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What does the growth mean for young people?
it means young people are less likely to believe in spiritual explanations of the world that aren't based on evidence,
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What have we accepted over relgious explanations as answers to what kind of questions. Therefore, what does this mean for religious explanations?
We have accepted scientific explanations over religious explanations for explaining core human questions, -E.g. Why am i here? Where does the world come from? -In today's society, there is less need for religious explanations,
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What does what sociologist argue about secularisation occuring for structural differentiation reasons such as industrialisation?
-Talcott Parsons, -He argues religion is declining in society because with industrialisation, it has lost hold on people's lives,
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For structural differentiation reasons, why has there been a decline in close knit communities and what has this led to the loss of?
-The decline in close knit communities has occured due to the rise of urbanisation and re-housing programmes, -This means people are no longer socialised into going to Church from family members and close friends,
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What is occuring to the functions religion used to have and an example?
They are being transferred to other institutions, therefore it is becoming disconnected from society E.g. the state is responsible for the education of childre,.
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Lastly, what do modern states now accept abou religion and why does this cause secularisation?
Modern states increasingly accept that religion is personal choice and therefore that tries not being identified with one particular faith- leading to a loss of function and power,
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For social and cultural diversity explanations, describe diversity in today's society?
In today's society, there is a huge amount of diversity among individuals,
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What does what sociologist suggest about diveristy and religion?
-Wilson, -He argues that diversity e.g. occupations, cultures and lifestyles undermines religion,
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What does Bruce argue about the religious diversity and accepting one?
Even when people continue to be religious, they are aware that others dont hold the same belief as them. Bruce argues that by having alternative forms of religious, spiritual and other beliefs in society, its harder for individuals to accept 1 belief
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Give another explanation of secularisation about the privatisation of modern families and an example?
The privatisation of modern families means that people now look for answers within themselves rather than external forces. e.g. If a child needs to be disciplined, they are taken to the naughty step not to confession
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Give another explanation for secularisation about Sunday as the day of rest?
Sunday as a day of rest has ended, Without a holy day, people no longer have time to worship formally. Instead they are working, shopping or spending time with their family,
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For evidence secularisation is occuring, when does Weber argue religion was at its most powerful?
When creating the sprit of capitalism and kick sstarting the industrial revolution,
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When did Weber predict secularisation would occur and why?
-Weber predicted industrial capitalism would turn into technological capitalism and religious explanations would be wiped away. He argue secularisation was an inevitable product of capitalism due to the desire to maximise profits (Science only can do
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However, as evidence that Britian is still religious and therefore secularisation is not occuring, what do Postmodernists argue and why?
-Postmodernists argue religion will always have a function in contemporary society. it continues to guide at times of doubt as individual members of society have to make swift moral judgements,
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Also as evidence secularisation isn't occuring, what do Maxists argue?
They argue religion still plays an important function in society. They state religion operates as the opium of the masses,
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Also as evidence secularisation isn't occuring, what do Functionalists argue?
They also argue religion plays an important function in society.Religion creates collective consciousness that provides social stability,
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As evidence that secularisation is occuring, give statistics for the drop in Catholic and Anglican churches and what does this show?
Between 1998 and 2005, the attendance at Catholic Churches dropped by 27% and at Anglican Churches it dropped by 11%. This provides empirical support for the argument that secularisation is occuring,
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For further empirical evidence, describe the statisitics for the decline of christening and baptisms?
In 1900, 67% of children were baptised, this had dropped to 27% in 1993.
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What statistics did what sociologist find about adult churchgoers in 1851 and what does this suggest?
-Crockett, -He suggests 40% of the adult population attended church on Sundays in 1851-This is a much higher rate than today's soceity and emphasises the 19th century was a 'golden age' for religion,
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HOWEVER, while large religious organisations have been in decline, can the same be said for smaller organisations?
No, many have continued to grow or remained stable,
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ALTHOUGH, what is the overall picture for religion and why despite this new evidence?
The overall picutre is that religion is in decline- The growth and stability of smaller organisations doesnt make up for the decline in the larger ones,
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As evidence for why religion is occuring, what does what sociologist argue about the problem with statistics?
-Davie, -he argues statistics used to measure secularisation only paints a partial view of secularisation on modern Britain-Not attending church doesnt mean people have become less religious but rather have changed the way their express it,
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Therefore, what process if Davie suggesting has happened to religion?
A process of individuation,
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While statistics show fewer people attending church means secularisation is occuring, what suggests otherwise?
Opinion polls and attitudes surveys show a lot more people hold religious beliefs than actually go to church,
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In addition to support secularisation isnt occuring in Britain, describe the reliability of secondary resources such as historical figures and why this can be a problem?
-there are methodological problems with secondary sources, -Some sociologists have been critical of historical data as membership figures were neither valid nor reliable by today's standard. Empirical data may lack reliability and validity,
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For arguments of beliefs as support that secularisation is occuring in Britain, what is the definition of pluralism?
An increase in the types of religious beliefs in society,
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What does what sociologist argue about pluralism and how it leads to secularisation?
-Bruce, -He argues pluralism has led to an increases in NRMs, some of these NRMs can be considered religious only in a loose sense.
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Give an example of an NRM group which would be rejected by a major religion?
Raelian's beliefs of free love would be rejected by most religious groups,
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What did what sociologist uses statistics about pluralism leading to an increase in popularity of NRMs say about it leading to secularisation?
-Brierly, -He uses statistics to show that new less religious movements are gaining in popularity. The fastest growing religion between 1980 and 2000 was Satanism, showing religion has lost some of its power,
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For arguments of beliefs as evidence for secularisation NOT occuring, how can pluralism not suggesting secularisation is occuring?
As it could suggest religious observations are changing,
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What did what sociologist argue about apirituality and religion as evidence secularisation isn't occuring?
-Bellah, -Argues the process of individuation has led to religion moving into the private sphere. It doesn't matter what religion people hold, if it has elements of spirituality it is still a religion.
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Whose Kendal Project presented what information about NRMs and NAMs and spirituality?
Heelas, -The Kendal Project supports the view that increases in NRMs and NAMs since the 1980s shows people are rediscovering the importance of spirtuality,
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What process is occuring where individuals are constructing what is sacred in their lives?
Resacrilisation, -A pick and mix culture,
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For rationalisation as an argument to suggest secularisation IS occuring in Britain, what is the definition of desacrilisation/rationalisation?,
Decline in the belief of the sacred. Is myth and magic less important in a scientifically advanced society such as modern Britain?
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What sociologist provides the argument that scientific rationality has undermined religion and an examples of how?
-Bruce, -When we are ill we take medicine instead of praying and no longer feel the need to sacrifice offerings to appease the Gods after natural disasters,
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What did what group of sociologists argue about how science is based on evidence as opposed to religion?
-Berger and Luckman, -They argue religion requires faith whereas science is based on rational observable data. This means scientific explanations will always be more popular with the media as scientific explanations have the appearance of facts,
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Rationalisation and desacrilisation as arguments to suggest secularisation is NOT occuring the Britain, what do Postmodernists argue about mistrusting science?
Science struggles for answers to explain situations where there is no observable table-They argue people have begun to mistrust science as it doesnt explain all fundemental questions of humanity,
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Give an example of a scientific theory which isnt based on hard, solid evidence similar to religion?
The Big Bang theory is arguably just faith the same as any religious descriptions of creation.
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The popualrity of Harry Potter and the Lord of the Rings show what in relation to secularisation not occuring in Britain?
It shows people still have the desire for magic in their lives and supernatural explanations of life, even in highly advanced societies,
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For organisations as an explanation that secularisation IS occuring in Britain, what is the definition of disengagement/ social differentiation?
Where the church becomes seperated from the working of society,
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For arguments of disengagement occuring causing secularisation, what does what sociologist argue about the process of social differentiation?
-Bruce, -He argues a process of social differentiation has occured whereby society has become specialised and each institution has fewer functions.
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Give some examples of roles the church used to have and now dont and what does this suggest?
They used to have the roles in education and healthcare. These functions have been taken over by the Government. This suggests religion is losing its power,
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What evidence is there to support that religion is losing its power with the decline in the number of clergy and what does this show?
In 1900, there were 45,000 but in 2000 there were only 34,000. If it had continued to grow with the population, there should be around 80,000. This suggests the lack of clergy in out day to day lives mean science is becoming more popular than religio
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For arguments of disengagement/ social differentiation to show secularisation is NOT occuring in Britain, what do Functionalists such as who argue about religion and integration?
-Parsons, -They argue religion still privdes a specialised function of integration in society by provising an individualised framework for people to live by,
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Where argueably does the church still have influence in our lives and what does this suggest?
The House of Lords influences legislation and a number of bishops still sit in the House. This means that the church and religion has not lost its power and therefore secularisation isn't necessarily occuring,
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For secularisation in a global context, what kind of influence can religion have and examples?
Religion appears to have a powerful influence over individuals and have been in the middle of a number of conflicts e.g. 9/11 and the bombings on Madrid, London and Bali
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What has what sociologist described these events as and overall, what does this argument suggest?
-Hunington, -He has described it as the 'clash of civilisations'. -It contradicts the idea of secularisation around the world as people are continuing to follow religion,
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What is another argument secularisation isn't occuring globally due to cultural defence?
Religiousity is high when groups have to protect their identity from other external forces,
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What is another argument secularisation isn't occuring globally due to cultural transition?
Religiousity is high when ethnic groups move to different countries or cultures as it provides a sense of community and support.
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What do both cultural defence and transition suggest?
It suggests that religion is remaining an important aspect in people's lives,
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What sociologist argues about 'fundementalism' developing alongside globalisation and what are they?
-Giddens, -Fundamentalists are extremely traditional and wish to return society to fit in with the basic teachings of their faith,
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What undermines the traditional norms and values and therefore who does fundamentalism appeal to?
-Globalisation has led to the undermining of tradition, -Appeals to individuals who are faced with choice and risk as it leads to certainty.
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Therefore, why does this show secularisation isn't occuring?
As in this context it could be argued religion is growing with the constant development of our modern world,
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What does Giddens also argue is developing and what is it?
-Cosmopolitanism, -It encompasses the modern world and is open to new ideas with modifying beleifs.
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How is cosmopolitanism provide an opposing view to fundamentalism due to how people justify their beliefs?
-People justify their beliefs through rational arguments and evidence, not sacred texts or tradition. Therefore providing an oppising view as people are changing their religious beliefs and spiritual beliefs around the world,
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However, what is an opposing view of cosmopolitianism to argue secularisation is occuring?
Others may see cosmopolitianism as only weakly linked to religion e.g. no sacred texts or traditions, therefore suggesting secularisation is occuring,
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The development of what appears to have led to secularisation occuring in Britain. Is this true for all parts of the world?
-The development of scientific and rational thinking, -No
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What findings did what sociologist get in India about globalisation and its effect on religion with statistics?
-Nanda, -Globalisation has led to a very scientific and educated middle class, -Yet Nanda found majority of these people had supernatural beliefs, -30% said they became more religious,
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What does an increase in religious tourism enforce for Nanda's arguement?
It highlights that visiting shrines and temples suggests people are just as, if not more religious than before, disagreeing with secularisation theory,
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What theory did what group of sociologist create about the variation of religiousity between rich and poor countries?
-Norris and Inglehart, -Existential security theory,
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What did Norris and Inglehart argue about why religion is less needed in richer countries such as Britain and in contrast to poorer countries?
Richer societies-people have more security, less risk, high standards of livings so have less need for religion where poorer countries there are more risks, a great deal of insecurity and so religion remains important,
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What does their existential security theory suggest about secularisation?
It suggests while secularisation may be occuring in well developed countries, the religousity of poorer countries remains high,
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However, what type of data did Norris and Inglehart use to study religiosity and how does this weaken it?
They used only quantitative data and didn't identify individual's feelings on security and risk. In this context, it could be argued qualitiative data is also needed,
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For the case study about secularisation in America, what statisitics about churchgoers show America to be a fairly religious country?
40% of Americans attend church on Sundays,
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However, what two sociologists argue America has become increasingly secular and why?
-Wilson, -Bruce, -They argue that church going in America isn't necessarily a sign of strong religious beliefs but a demonstration of the 'American way of life'
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Overall why does Bruce argue secularisation is occuring in America with church attendace?
He argues secularisation is occuring with declining church attendace,
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What group of sociologists support his and found out what about exaggeration on polls and an example?
-Hadaway et al. found people exaggerate their attendance to church. -Opinion polls exaggerated attendance to Catholic mass in San Francisco by 101% in 1996.
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What did Bruce find about secularisation from within?
He argues American religion has remained popular by becoming less religious e.g. it has been turned into a form of therapy to adjust into the modern world.
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What is the last reason for why secularisation may be occuring in America?
Due to increasing religious diversity,
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What did Bruce find about increasing religious diversity leading to secularisation?
By realising that others have different beliefs to one's own, one may find it difficult to accept their viewpoint is the correct one.
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Give some statistics from a question difference in 1924 and 1977?
In 1924, 94% of young people who attended church agreed that 'Christianity is the one true religion', whereas only 41% agred in 1977, suggesting diversity in society is leading people to question their own beliefs and allow secularisation to occur,
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To conclude, whether secularisation is occuring or not, what is the argument dependent on?
The measure and definition a sociologist uses,
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Is there a set defintion of religion?
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what does the inclusivist definition include in it and therefore what does this suggest about arguments related to secularisation?
-It includes a number of different movements such as Marxism and premier league football. The uptake and popularity of these movements cannot be measured in relation to religion, meaning all arguments lack reliabilty and validity,
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To conclude, what religion are all arguments about secularisation in the UK focused on and therefore, what does this suggest about that religion?
-Christianity, -Therefore, much of the socioliogy is Christo-centric. Statistics suggest that the decline in religion seems only related to Christianity in Britain
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Are these patterns of Christianity in Britain similar to the rest of the world?
No, different patterns may be seen in American or globally and therefore secularisation is not unviersal,
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To conclude, what does the secluarisation argument prove about the role of religion in history and is this accurate?
-It proves religion was historically powerful, -Some sociologists argue that the view of the 'golden age' of religious worship, where the Church was all powerful, is a myth,
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To conclude, what could be argued about religion not decling but instead doing what?
-Changing form and there secularisation isnt occuring e.g. growth in NRMs and NAMs,
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Card 2


What are the three main explanations as to why secularisation might be occuring?


-Rationalisation, -Structural differentiation, -Social and cultural diversity,

Card 3


Give an example of a sociologist who supports that we have gone through a process of rationalisation in western society?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How has rationalisation occured? (So what has made a better informed population/)


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What does the growth mean for young people?


Preview of the front of card 5
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