LT8- The popularity/ growth in NRMs

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 20-11-15 20:44
Why have NRMs become popular/ grown in numbers?
As they provide important functions that churches do not,
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Since the 1960s, what two things have increased in numbers to do with NRMS?
-The number of cults and sects have increased, -The number of people joining them,
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Give evidence of how many NRMs and the number of people belonging to them?
-800 NRMS, -Over half a million individuals belonging to these and other non-mainstream Christians,
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What four reasons have sociologists provided for the popularity/growth for NRMs?
1) Marginality, 2) Social change, 3) Spiritual void, 4) Relative deprivation,
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For the explanation of marginality, what kind of members do sects tend to attract?
The poor and the oppressed,
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What might make many feel marginalised to join NRMS and how do NRMS act as a defence for them?
Inequality, immigration and racism may marginalise, -They act as a defence for people to make sense of this injustice,
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In Weber's view, what do sects offer a solution of and what does this mean?
"Theodicy of disprivledge" which means explaining and justifying their suffering and disadvantage,
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Give an example of Weber's idea with insurgents in Iraq who join what kind of movements and for what reasons?
-They join fundamentalist movements and commit terrorist acts because they believe that they have been marginalised by their own country America. Their escape is heaven using the norms and values provided by the fundamentalist sects,
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For the explanation of social change, when are people most likely to join NRMS?
When there is large or rapid social change,
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What sociologist argues social change leads to anomie and what does this mean?
-Durkheim, -(normlessness) It means there is no set way of behaving in society,
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Why do sects become popular during times of rapid social change?
Sects become popular because they are seen to provide strict codes of law in times of uncertainty,
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For example, why was there an increase in the number of NRMS in Britain during the 60s?
It can be attributed to the large amount of social change that occured in this period,
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What sociologist believes modernisation and secularisation in society has lead to a growth in sects and cults and what does he suggest about it?
-Bruce, -AS society has become more secular, people are less likely to be attracted to traditional churches. People are more likely to be interested in cults because they are less demanding,
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As the explanation for spiritual void, why do people join NRMs?
As their postmodern lives lack magic,
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Because secularisation is occuring, where do people no longer look for answers to what?
-People no longer look to churches, -For answers to spiritual questions,
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What do Postmodernists beliee people are more likely to fill their spiritual void?
They believe people are more likely to fill a spiritual void with a more personalised religion that is close to their views,
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For example, what NRM talks of increasing IQ by releasing what and how does this fill their spiritual void?
-Scientology, -Releasing negative memories, -In this respect, the members are directly benefiting by improving their IQ and spiritually benefiting as scientology helps alleviate problems,
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As the explanation of relative deprivation, what is its definition?
It refers to the subjective sense of being deprived, so it is possible that someone who in reality who is quite privileged nevertheless to feel that they are deprived or disadvantaged,
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Therefore, why might the middle class feel relatively deprived in today's society?
They may feel spiritually deprived, especially in today's materialistic, consumerist world.
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What sociologist argues that the middle class may break away from churches and turn to sects for a sense of community?
Stark and Bainbridge,
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What do Stark and Bainbridge argue world rejecting sects offer what?
They offer deprived compensation for what they are denied in this world,
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What are the three different types of NRMs and who argues they are popular?
-Wallis, -World-rejecting movements, -World-affirming movements, -World accommodating movements
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Give an example of a world rejecting movement and why Wallis argues they are popular due to more freedoms in society?
-Moonies, -Individuals have more choice and have become more free in modern societies; some people become disillusioned with this upheaval and seek concrete norms and values
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Give an example of world affirming movements and why Wallis argues they are popular to help people to unlock their potential?
-Transcendental meditation, -Modern society is characterised by confusion of identity. World affirming groups seek to help people by unlocking their potential to answer their own questions,
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Give an example of a world accommodating movement and why Wallis argues they are popular?
-Pentecostalism, -it appeals to those dissatisfied with mainstream religions but still allows them to follow similar beliefs.
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What are the 2 reasons why NAMs have increased in popularity?
1)People aren't expected to be traditionally religious to be part of a NAM so it feels authentically new, 2)People are expected to find the answers within themselves so being part of a NAM takes little commitment,
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What postmodernist argues what is the appeal of NAM?
-John Drane, -The shift towards the postmodern society,
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In a post-modern world, what 3 things have people lost faith in?
1) Meta-narratives, claims to have the truth, 2) Science, which has led to war and global warming, 3) Churches which have failed to meet their spiritual needs,
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What do NAMs reflect in post-modern society?
The pick and mix culture of belief and identity,
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For evaluation, what argument is there against NRMs growing from secularisation?
Mainstream religions aren't necessarily decreasing and NRMs still remain a small percentage of religious membership,
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Describe how NRMs contrast with traditional churches on the topic of the times they are active?
Churches such as the Catholic Church and the Church of England have a history of stretching over many centuries, sects and NRMs by contrast are often short lived and last only a single generation or less.
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What sociologist argues NRMs are short lived?
Niebuhr
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Why does Niebuhr see NRMs as short lived due the modern culture and an example?
As interests are linked to the changing nature of modern culture. For example scientology has increased in popularity as it is practised by Hollywood celebrities .
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What is another reason why NRMs are short lived due to crisises and a more consistent example?
Some people only join at times of crisis and leave when the crisis is over. An example is that women are more likely to join sects and cults at times of organisimic tension.
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What is another reason why NRMs are short lived due to commitment and an examoke>
Commitment often depends on the leadership groups have. The Branch Davidians has a highly charasmatic leader in David Koresh. his presence meant that members were highly committed but if the leader dies, the sect may collapse,
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What is another reason why NRMs are short lived due to recruitment?
Some groups fail to rectuir beyond their originial members,
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What is another reason why NRMs are short lived due to the second generation?
People who are born into sects often don't have the same commitment as their parents, so they quickly become out of date and fade,
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What sociologist argues some NRMs can last?
Wilson
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What is one reason why Wilson argues some NRMs can last due to conversionist sects?
Conversionist sects can easily turn denominations (e.g. Evangelicals) if their message doesn't reject societal norms and values too strongly,
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What evidence is there that NRMs can last with the Mennonites?
They manage to keep a number of their children in the faith and therefore reduce the chance of sects dying out,
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What is another reason why NRMs can last due to celebrities and an example NRM?
NRMs who manage to get celebrity endorsment have a much greater chance of lasting as popularity and membership numbers are maintained e.g. scientology,
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What is the last reason why NRMs can last due to established sects and examples?
Some sects such as Mormons and the Quakers have become established sects rather than denominations.
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For problems with investigating NRMs, what is a problem using the definition of religious organisations?
The ideal type of NRM creates a problem of typology. Churches and sects don't fall into neat categories.
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When was rthe definition of sects created and where was it taken from? What is the problem with this?
-1921, -From mainly Christian sects, -Therefore, the definition doesnt translate into non-Christian cultures.
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Whar is using Weber's ideal type difficult to establish and understand what?
-It is difficult to distinguish between a denomination, a cult, a sect, -Understanding the role of these NRMs is subjective and places too much power with the sociologist,
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What is another problem with the definition of NRMs based on understanding it now?
They don't add anything new to the understanding of religion
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What do definitions of NRMs suggest about the acceleration of their popularity in contrast to sociolgists?
Sociologists argue that the growth of sects and cults has accelerated but the definitions have remained the same.
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What does what sociologist criticise the defintion of world-rejecting NRMs?
-Haddon, -He criticises world-rejecting NRMs as being too close to sects that it makes no difference which term is used,
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What is the last problem NRMs and investigating them?
Methodology- It is difficult to investigate,
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Why can data become out of date quickly?
Both cults and sects are contemporary and therefore change very quickly, meaning that any data collected goes out of date quickly,
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Why can there be problems with contact with which NRMs?
-World rejecting NRMS, -There can be problems with contact and ethical issue of exposing it to research,
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Since the 1960s, what two things have increased in numbers to do with NRMS?

Back

-The number of cults and sects have increased, -The number of people joining them,

Card 3

Front

Give evidence of how many NRMs and the number of people belonging to them?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What four reasons have sociologists provided for the popularity/growth for NRMs?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

For the explanation of marginality, what kind of members do sects tend to attract?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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