LT8- Locality, crime and justice

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 09-02-16 14:35
For key assumptions of locality and crime, what do Official Crime Statistics show about crime and locality?
They show that crime and offenders are concentrated in inner city areas and low income households
1 of 55
What do Victim Surveys show about who are more likely to be victims of what kind of crime?
They show that those who live in inner city areas, low income areas and rented accommodation are more likely to be victims of a range of crimes,
2 of 55
What do Victim surveys suggests about who are likely to fear crime more?
Those who live in inner city areas, low income areas and rented accommodation,
3 of 55
For a key assumption, what do Victim Surveys suggest about a link between where crime is committed and where people who commit crimes live?
They suggest offending is often intra-local (committed by people who live in those areas).
4 of 55
What theories accept these OCS and therefore accept what about crime and locality?
-Environmentalist theories, -They believe that crime is concentrated in inner city/ urban areas and poor housing estates,
5 of 55
What are the 5 reasons they suggest causes urban city crime and deviance?
1) The Chicago School, 2) Differential Association, 3) Tipping Point 4) Cognitive maps and opportunity 5)The Night Time Economy,
6 of 55
For the first cause of urban city crime and deviance, what sociologists provided The Chicago school reason for crime in inner city areas?
Shaw and McKay
7 of 55
Where did Shaw and McKay complete their study and how did they categorise this place and the names of each category?
-Chicago, -They split Chicago into 5 seperate areas- 1)Central Business District 2)Zone of transition 3)Zone of low cost housing 4)Zone of better residence 5) Commuters' zone,
8 of 55
Which category did Shaw and Mckay find had the highest level of crime?
Zone of transition,
9 of 55
What two features does the zone of transition have?
AS the area had a high population turnover and ethnic/cultural diversity,
10 of 55
Therefore, why do these features mean there are high levels of crime here?
As it gave way to social disorganisation. This leads to a weakening of informal social control E.g. public surveillance and reporting crime and so more crime and deviance,
11 of 55
For reason 2, what sociologist provided the argument that inner city crime was due to differential association?
Sutherland,
12 of 55
Why did Sutherland argue crime and deivance was higher in inner city areas?
As criminality and deviance is less likely to be condemned
13 of 55
What does Sutherland also claim about individuals being influenced by offenders?
He claims individuals associate with others who hae favourable attitudes about crime and therefore are influenced by them (peer influence),
14 of 55
For reason 2, what sociologist argued inner city crime was due to tipping theory?
Bottoms
15 of 55
What does Bottoms suggest the extent and type of crime is linked to what?
Housing areas,
16 of 55
What does Bottoms suggests the majority of average states consist of?
Most estates consist of a mixture of people from different backgrounds with different forms of behaviour,
17 of 55
On most estates, what limits the offending minority?
Informal social control,
18 of 55
However, what does Bottoms argue these estates can form and how?
-'Tipped Estates', -For different reasons, ethnic minority groups grow, drive away some of the law abiding families and further 'offending' families move in,
19 of 55
For characteritistics of 'tipped estates', what type of families do they attract?
-Attract 'problem' families,
20 of 55
Describe the order and control on 'tipped estates'?
-Have physical and social disorder, -Have little informal social control,
21 of 55
What type of people move out?
-'Respectable' people,
22 of 55
Therefore what emerges linked with crime and deviance?
Criminal subcultures emerge,
23 of 55
For reason 4, what sociologist suggests crime in inner city areas is caused by cognitive maps and opportunity?
Brantinghams,
24 of 55
When does Brantinghams suggest offenders are most likely to commit crimes?
Where opportunities link with cognitively known areas.
25 of 55
What are the two elements Brantinghams suggests opportunity consists of?
1) How attractive the target is (how much can be gained), -How accessible the target is (how easy the crime is to commit)
26 of 55
What sociologists provided further evidence of these ideas due to routine activities and what did they suggest?
-Cohen and Felson, -They suggested crime is more likely to occur where the day-to-day activities of victims and offenders are likely to coincide, and where there is little social control,
27 of 55
For reason 5, what sociologists provided the argument that inner city crime was due to the night time economy?
Hobbs et al,
28 of 55
What does the growth in pubs and clubs lead to?
-There are huge numbers of people in a narrow time band and in a restrictive area,
29 of 55
When do most violent incidents occur and what do they usually involve?
-They usually occur at the weekend between 9pm and 3am, -They usually involve alcohols and drugs,
30 of 55
Where did Hobb's complete his research and what did he find about numbers of people?
-Manchester, -On average, 75,000 people are out on Friday and Saturday nights
31 of 55
How many police officers are there to control them? However, what is there higher numbers in for control?
-Only around 30 police officers, -Over 1000 door staff and 'bouncers',
32 of 55
How does Hobbs et al's research support environmental theories?
As there is a high rate of violent crime occuring within this framework of time and space- Opportunity and lack of informal social control,
33 of 55
For empirical evaluation, what sociologist supports routine activities theory?
Brantingham
34 of 55
What does Brantingham claim to support routine activities theory?
They claim most offenders commit crime in areas they are familiar with (cognitive mapping)
35 of 55
What other sociologist provides empirical support about informal social control?
-Sampson and Groves, -Support the claim that crime rates are highest where informal social control is weak,
36 of 55
For theoretical evaluation, what three theories criticise environmental theories and why?
-Postmodernists, -Left Realists, -Interactionism,
37 of 55
Why do Left Realists and Posmodernists criticise Environmentalist theories?
-For focusing too much on the environment, thereby neglecting wider structural causes of inner city crime
38 of 55
What do Postmodernists link crime in inner city areas to instead?
They link to to a growing 'underclass' that have becoe 'ghettoised' in certain areas,
39 of 55
What do Left realists link crime in inner city areas to instead?
They link crime to marginalisation, relative deprivation and subcultures,
40 of 55
In general, why do interactionists criticise environmental theories?
For underestimating the way in whcih the geographical distribution of crime and deviance is socially constructed,
41 of 55
Instead, what do interactionists argue inner city crime is due to?
-Selective law enforcement, labelling, self-fulfilling prophecies and consequent subcultural formation/ membership,
42 of 55
What theory supports environmentalist theories,
Right realists
43 of 55
What arguments do they agree with from environmentalist theories?
The problem of inadequate social control,
44 of 55
What right realist sociologist provided what explaination to suggestcrime is linked to opportunity?
-Cornish and Clarke, -Suggest crime is linked to the situations in which deviants find themselves with little risks,
45 of 55
Give an example of why there would be little risk and how this relates to inner city crime rates?
Due to a lack of social control/ crime prevention. For example no window locks. This is most typical in inner city areas and low income housing estates,
46 of 55
What right realist sociologist aruges what occurs in certain neighbourhoods due to unruly behaviour as an example?
-Wilson, -Breakdown in social order,
47 of 55
Why is there an increase in crime in neighbourhoods with a breakdown in social order? Give some examples of crimes?
As a sense of community is lost and with it informal social control, -Unruly behaviour, drug taking, prostitution.
48 of 55
For rural areas and crime, what sociologists suggest rural areas are more 'close-knit'?
Marshall and Johnson
49 of 55
What does a 'close-knit' community mean there is less crime in rual areas?
As there are higher levels of integration/ interaction, community history and overall stronger community bond,
50 of 55
What sociologists argues what about opportunity about rural areas?
-Felson and Clarke, -Opportunity to commit crime is usually lower in rural areas,
51 of 55
In contrast, what opportunities are there in urban areas?
Urban areas boast more opportunity for crime to occur e.g. warehouses, red-light districts, shopping,
52 of 55
In rural area, describe policing?
In rural communities, police are less likely to make arrests for trivial offences and instead to issue formal warnings or visit parents/schools,
53 of 55
In contrast, describe policing in urban areas?
Great police presence in urban areas so more crime likely to be detected- Officers less likely to have community roots so policing is more formal,
54 of 55
Lastly, what is characterised by poorer housing and poverty occurs more in urban areas than rural areas and why does this lead to crime?
-Social and material deprivation, -As people try to achieve success by illegal means,
55 of 55

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do Victim Surveys show about who are more likely to be victims of what kind of crime?

Back

They show that those who live in inner city areas, low income areas and rented accommodation are more likely to be victims of a range of crimes,

Card 3

Front

What do Victim surveys suggests about who are likely to fear crime more?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

For a key assumption, what do Victim Surveys suggest about a link between where crime is committed and where people who commit crimes live?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What theories accept these OCS and therefore accept what about crime and locality?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Crime and deviance resources »