LT6-Family Diversity-Sociological Perspectives

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 08-04-15 10:13
Overall, what are modernist views on family diversity?
They emphasise the dominance of one family type and offer a structural unit that shapes the beahviour of individual members so that they perform functions for wider society,
1 of 68
What two theories class as modernist views on family diversity?
-New Right, -Functionalism
2 of 68
For functionalism, what does what sociologist argue about the nucleur family?
Parsons arguers that the nucleur family has risen to be the most dominant type in modern society
3 of 68
What four functions does Parson argue that the nucleur family carries out for social order and stability?
1)Facilitates geographical mobility, 2)Facilitates social mobility, 3)Primary socialisation of children, 4)Stabilisation of adult personalities,
4 of 68
Describe the function of the nucleur family for stabilising adult personalities?
The 'warm bath theory'- THe family provides a warm, stable enviornment where adults can relieve stress and let themselves go,
5 of 68
How does Parson and functionalists view the functions of other family types?
They are seen as less effective or deviant and don't adequately perform the functions required,
6 of 68
Therefore, how do they view other family types for society?
a threat to social order and stability,
7 of 68
What is an evaluation of functionalist and Parson's views?
Parsons assumes that the nucleur family is the dominant family form and ignores the diversity of mdoern family strucutres e.g. lone parent families and same sex households,
8 of 68
How do the New Right view the Nucleur family?
As the traditional and ideal and biologically natural,
9 of 68
How do the New Right view other family types and their growth?
They are opposed to family diversity and sees its growth as a bad thing,
10 of 68
How do the New Right view lone parent families?
They are seen as unnatural and harmful.
11 of 68
How do the New Right view benefits for lone parent families and their effect on society?
New Right believe they are part of an underclass dependent on welfare benefits which leads to an increasing tax burden on the population,
12 of 68
How do the New Right view the lone parent's effect on children?
They believe children grow up without a male role model and authority figure,
13 of 68
Do they want to abolish/cut the welfare benefits and why?
Yes to encourage the conventional nucleur family,
14 of 68
Why are the New Right in favour of marriage?
As they believe it encourages the most stable environment for bringing up children,
15 of 68
What evidence is there to suggest that marriage is stable?
As divorce/ separation are lower for married couples than cohabiting couples,
16 of 68
Give some examples of negative consequences that the New Right believe will arise from broken families?
-educational failure, -Health problems, -Crime, -increased chance of family breakdown when adults,
17 of 68
Therefore, how do the New Right view other types of families other than the nucleur?
As a threat to social order and stability,
18 of 68
What is an evaluation of the New Right's views?
They support a very conservative view of family life,
19 of 68
How do feminists view the New Right?
They would argue the nucleur family oppresses women and therefore they favour alternatives such as same sex relationships,
20 of 68
How does Oakley view the New Right?
She states the New Rigth assume male/female roels are fixed in biology but cross cultural studies show great variation in male and female roles in the family,
21 of 68
What sociologist supports the neo-conventional family and what is it?
-Chester, -A dual earner family where both spouses work,
22 of 68
What are Chester views on the nucleur family's change?
He believes they still exist but has taken a new form (neo-conventional)
23 of 68
Does he believe the nucleur family is still dominant and why?
Yes and he believes family diversity is exaggerated and statistics on household strucutre offer a misleading 'snapshot' pircture at a single moment in time,
24 of 68
What does Chester claim about people choosing to live in alternative family types?
He states people arent choosing to live in alternatives to the nucleur family for a long time but claims that although growing numbers wont live in a nucleur family at one point in time, this is because of the life cycle,
25 of 68
What evidence is there about marriage to suggests little has changed liek Chester suggests?
-Most people live in a household headed by a married couple, most adutls marry and have children, most marriage continue to death, most divorcees remarry,cohabitation stage before marriage,
26 of 68
Therefore, what does this suggest about Functionalist and New Right views that there is a decrease in family types?
They are over exaggerated,
27 of 68
What sociologist suggested there is a move from the traditonal nucleur family to a picture of diversity?
Rapoports
28 of 68
What were the five types of family diversity that he suggests to understand the family?
1)Cultural diversity 2)Social class diversity, 3)Life-stage diversity, 4)Generational diversity, 5)Organisational diversity,
29 of 68
What does Rapoport suggest about cultural diversity affecting family types and an example?
Different family structures based on religion and ethnicity -A high proportion of Afro-Caribbean families are headed by lone females,
30 of 68
What does Rapoport suggest about social class diversity affecting family types?
Differences in family strucutres based on income and occupation as well as differences in child rearing practices,
31 of 68
What does Rapoport suggest about life-stage diversity affecting family type?
There are differences according to the stage reached in the life cyle e.g. newlyweds, couples with children, widows etc,
32 of 68
What does Rapoport suggest about generalisation diversity affecting family types and an example?
Older and younger generations have different attitudes as to what is a suitable family type,
33 of 68
What does Rapoport suggest about organisational diversity affecting family types and an example?
Difference in the way family roles are organsied, joint and segregated roles, sole and dual earners,
34 of 68
What are two reasons for diversity?
1) Freedom of choice 2)Changing social attitudes
35 of 68
What does Rapoport's view suggest about family diversity and modernist views?
That it reflects changes in wider society and the life course. Modernist views are old fashioned and other factors realted to diversioty need to be considered,
36 of 68
What do postmodernist and recent views on family diversity and the life course state claim about the dominant family type and why?
They claim there is no longer on best or dominant family type- greater choice in our personal relationships has increase family diversity
37 of 68
What do postmodernist and recent views on family diversity and the life course state claim about family strucutres and why?
They claim family structures don't shape indiviudal behaviour and individual family members make choices about family lfie and relationships,
38 of 68
What does life course analysis state?
It states people dont have a fixed life course and make decisions that suit them,
39 of 68
What does life course analysis suggest about flexibility and variation?
It recognises there is flexibility and variation in the choices, timing and sequence of people's family lives,
40 of 68
What does life course analysis suggest about meanings of family?
It focuses on the meaning people give to their family and relationship choices e.g. how young people feel when they first leave home,
41 of 68
What does what sociologist claim about how family identity is created?
-Morgan, -Found our sense of family identity is created through our routine actions or 'family practices' e.g. doing DIY or cleaning,
42 of 68
What does Morgan also suggest about family relationships in a postmodern society
That they arent just baed on blood kinship and the boundries betwen family and non-family are blurrred,
43 of 68
What does she also claim about friendship being perceived as?
She claims individuals are free to organise their own relationships and life course and so friendship groups and other types can be constructed as family.
44 of 68
What does this therefore suggest about traditional views on family diversity?
They are no longer relevant and outdated,
45 of 68
What does what postmodernist sociologist claim about postmodern societies and choice?
-Cheal, -Claims postmodern socities are characterised by choice, individuals have the freedom to determine their own life course and choose the type of family and personal relationships they wish for,
46 of 68
As a result of this choice, what does Cheal argue has happened to family structures and type?
He claims that family strucutres have become fragmented and no one family type fominates so we have diverse families,
47 of 68
What does another postmodernist sociologist claim about choice in relationships and why?
-Giddens, -He claims there is greater choice and equality in relationships as individuals are now free to choose and change their relationship type withotu following laws or traditions,
48 of 68
What does Giddens claim about how people form relationships now instead of what?
By meeting their own needs e.g.love, happiness etc rather than duty ot tradition,
49 of 68
What does Giddens claim this freedom allows individuals?
Allows individualos to discover and construst their own identities as they try dfferent relationships.
50 of 68
However, what does negative does Gidden stress about choice and why?
It leads to instability in relationships as they only last as long as both partners' needs are satisfied adn when it isnt, the relationships end quickly,
51 of 68
Therefore, what has this choice lead to?
Diversity of family types and structures,
52 of 68
What are two reasons for diversity in late modernity?
1) Contraception, 2)Change in women's position
53 of 68
How has contraception led to diversity in late modernity?
As it has made sure reproduction is not the main reason for a relationships existence and now other factors are important like intimacy,
54 of 68
How has changes in women's position led to diversity in late modernity?
It has allowed women to gain independence becasue of increased opportunites in education and jobs,
55 of 68
What is an evaluation of postmodernism and family diversity?
They over exaggerate people's freedom to choose- e.g. few women prefer to raise children without a partner, some people forced into arranged marriage etc,
56 of 68
What sociologist claims there is a risk in the second modernity?
Beck
57 of 68
What does Beck claim is the risk in the second modernity?
That the stable family based on traditional has given way to a more unstable negotiated family based on choice,
58 of 68
How is the negotiated family constrcutred and how is it unstable?
It is constrcuted on the basis of the equal wished of the partners involved and is more unstable as individuals feel free to leave of needs arent met,
59 of 68
What are two reasons for riskier families arising?
1)More gender equality, 2)Greater individualism,
60 of 68
How has more gender equality led to riskier families arising?
As patriarchal control has diminished and women now expect more equality in the home and workplace,
61 of 68
How has greater individualism ledto riskier families arising?
Peopl act according to self interest rather than a sense of obligation to others,
62 of 68
What sociologist argue about the divorce extended family and what is it?
-Stacey, -Members, mainly female, connected by divorce rather than marriage,
63 of 68
How does Stacey view postmodern family arrangements and why?
As diverse, fluid and unresolved so a positive as it allows peopl to form relationships that suit their own needs and situations,
64 of 68
Who does Stacey argue benefits the most from choice and why?
Women as they are freed from patriarchal oppression,
65 of 68
Why does Stacey argue women are the main agents of the family change?
As they reject the housewife/mother role, return to work, divorced and re married to form an arrangement that suits their needs,
66 of 68
What is an evaluation of this perspective?
It ignores factors that limit choice e.g. socal class,
67 of 68
What is the conclusion for family divserity-sociological persepctives?
In conclusion, there is little doubt that in postmodern societies, family diversity is present. This is due to the changing social attitudes to diversity, secularisationetc. However, family patterns still remain largely traditional,
68 of 68

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What two theories class as modernist views on family diversity?

Back

-New Right, -Functionalism

Card 3

Front

For functionalism, what does what sociologist argue about the nucleur family?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What four functions does Parson argue that the nucleur family carries out for social order and stability?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the function of the nucleur family for stabilising adult personalities?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Families and households resources »