LT6- Definitions of the Organisations of Religion

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 05-07-15 19:15
What are the four different types of organisations of religion?
-Churches, -Denominations, -Sects, -Cults
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What are the general sizes of Churches as an organisation?
-Large Organisations with large memberships
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E.g. how many members does the Anglican Church have worldwide?
77 million
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What are the scope of Churches?
National (Or international)
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Are churches inclusive or exclusive?
Inclusive- it seeks to include all social groups,
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Describe the Church organisation's internal organisation?
-Hierarchical and bureaucratic,
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What is the nature of leadership for Churches?
Professional clergy with paid officials.
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Give an exmple of the organisation and leadership of the Anglican Church?
It has Vicars, deacons, arch deacons and Bishops to administer the flock
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What is the general life span of Church organisations?
Over centuries
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What are Church organisation's attitudes to wider society?
To support and reinforce society's norms and values,
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Give an example of the Anglican Church for its attitude to wider society?
The Anglican faith is based on the 10 commandments which are the basis of British law,
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What are Church organisation's claims to truth?
Monopoly view of truth- A church claims to have the answer to all questions and doesnt accept the answers that other religions or non-religious groups provide,
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What is an example of this for the Catholic Church?
The Catholic Church has been notoriosuly inflexible on contraception in Catholic countries with high HIV rates,
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What is the membership like for Church members?
Little formal commitment required,
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What is an example of this for the Anglican Church?
The Anglican Church has few expectations of its members other than to lead a good life,
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Give some general examples of Church organisations?
-Anglicanism, -Roman Catholicism, -Islam, -Judaism, -Hinduism, -Sikhism,
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What are the general sizes of denominations as an organisation?
Medium sized organisation with medium membership,
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What is the scope of denominations?
National or international
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What is an example of a small membered denomination and its class?
Methodism occurs in smaller numbers than the Anglican Church and involves mainly middle class membership,
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Describe the internal organisation of denominations?
Formally bureaucratic but no hierarchal pyramid of power,
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What is the nature of leadership in denomination organisations?
Professional clergy and wide use lay preachers,
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What is the general lifespan of denominations?
Often more than 100 years,
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What are the denominations attitudes to wider society?
They are often radical but do not reject society's norms and values,
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What are the denominations claims to truth?
No monopoly of truth-Often accept other explanations of creation,
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What are the type of membership for denominations?
Members are expected to be more committed than those in church but less than those of a sect, e.g. non-gambling
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Give some examples of denomination organisations?
Baptists, Methodists, Pentecostalists,
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What are the general sizes of sects as an organisation?
They tend to start small but can become large,
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Give an example of a sect with large membership numbers?
The exclusive brethren numbers are in the thousands,
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What is the general scope for sects?
Local or national,
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Are sects inclusive or exclusive?
Often exclusive- The Exclusive brethren do not allow people to join who are not born into the faith,
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Describe the internal organisation of sects?
They are voluntary, tight-knit and informal,
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What is the nature of leadership in sect organisations?
No professional clergy or beaucratic structure but often a single charasmatic leader,
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Give an example of a sect with a charasmatic leader?
The exclusive brethren waas started by charismatic aristoceat John Nelson Darby
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What is the general life-spans of sects?
Generally short-lived but can sometimes last more than a generation,
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If they last more than a denomination, what can sects develop into?
Denominations
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What are sects' attitude to wider society?
They are radical and often reject society's norms and values,
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What is the exclusive brethren's attitude to wider society?
They reject all modern interpretations of faith. They reject modern technology and their members are not allowed mobile phones or to use the internet,
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What are sects' claims to truth?
The monopoly view of truth-The claim to answer all of their members spiritual questions. They dont accept the answers that other groups provide,
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What are the exclusive brethren's claim to truth?
They claim that all people who don't share their interpretation of Christianity will go to hell,
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What is the type of membership for sects?
Small exclusive membership that has to be earned by commitment to the sect's code of practice- exceptional commitment is expected,
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What is an example of membership for the exclusive brethren?
People are put out for mixing with people outside the sect which leads to split families,
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What are some examples of sects?
-Mormons, -Jehovah' Witnesses, -Moonies, -Branch Davidian, -Salvation Army, -The Exclusive Brethren,
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What are the general sizes of cults?
Small but can vary in size,
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What is the scope of cults?
Local, national or international,
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Are cults inclusive or exclusive?
Inclusive- open to everyone,
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What is an example of an inclusive cult?
The Nibiru collision is believed by a small number of people populating doomsday websites,
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Describe the internal organisation of cults?
It is voluntary and a loose structure- seniority is often discouraged and there is no real hierarchy,
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Describe the internal organisation of the Nibiru collision cult?
It has no structured hierarchy but a person suggesting a series of beliefs that people use to develop their understanding of the world,
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What is the nature of leadership of cults?
-Often have an inspirational leader so may be based on a common interest,
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What is the life-span of cults generally?
Often short-lived and die with the leadership
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Describe the life span of the Nibiru collision?
It was predicted for 2003 which has now been revised for 2012,
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What are cult's attitudes to wider society?
May be critical or accepting of society, but claim to have a unique approach that offers more,
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What are cult's claims to truth?
No monopoly of turth- They borrow from a range ot resources and let people hold other spiritual beliefs alongside theirs,
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Give an example of the Nibiru Collision?
It is not a set of principles to instruct, rather a doomsday prediction based on UFO belief,
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Describe the type of membership of cults?
It is flexible,
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Give some examples of cults?
-Scientology, spiritualism, -transcendental meditation, -New Age ideas,
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What are NRMs and when did they develop?
Small religious movements, -Developed from the great cultural change the 1960s and 1970s,
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Why did the organisation of religion increase in diversity during the 1960s and 1970s?
As traditional values begun to be rejected,
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What two terms could no longer be used to explain contemporary organisations of religion and why?
-Sects and cults, -Too rigid and no longer fitted the definition,
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What sociologist came up with the ideal types of new religious movements?
Wallis
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What are the three names of Wallis' ideal types of NRMs?
-World affirming, -World accomodating, -World rejecting,
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Give two examples of world affirming NRMs?
-Transcendental meditation, -Scientology,
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For a characterisitic of world affirming NRM, do they accept or reject the world and what do they promise followers?
-Accept the world, -They promise followers success in terms of mainstream goals such as careers,
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What do world affirming NRMs lack and an example?
They lack some conventionla features of religion such as collective worship.
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What two things are their worships based on?
-Individual worship, -Releasing 'human potential'
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How do they view other religions and therefore, is their membership restricted?
-They are non-critical of other religions, -They are non-exclusive,
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Are there consequences if members don't obey NRM's rules?
No, there is no social control or punishment,
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Why are followers like customers?
They train to enter and can carry on with their normal lives,
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Give an example of a world accommodating NRM?
(Neo-)Pentecostalism
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What are world accommodating NRMs?
They are usually offshoots of existing churches or denominations,
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What kind of members do they attract and why?
-Disillusioned members of the main religion, -They seek religious purity,
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Do they accept or reject the world? What do they focus on?
The neither accept or reject the world but focus on religion rather than the world,
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Give two examples of world rejecting NRMs?
-The Manson family, -The Moonies,
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Describe their contact with the outside world and therefore where are they based?
-Limited contact, -Based in communes,
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Are members of world-rejecting NRMs religous and an example?
They are clearly religious with a notion of God,
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How do world-rejecting NRMs view other religions and society?
They are critical,
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Describe the control world-rejecting NRMs have over their members?
Very high level of control over individual members' lives and often balmed for brain washing,
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Is membership exclusive and what is expected of members?
-membership is exclusive, -They are expected to sacrifice a great deal to be a member e.g. break away from former lives,
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What are their moral codes often like?
They are often conservative e.g. about sex,
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Give a description of NAM and some example movements?
-Extremely diverse and ecelectic, -Include movements such as astrology, tarot, crystals, yoga, ufology, meditation, magic,
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When have NAMs been widespread and what are they connected to?
-1980s, -A range of beliefs and activities are connected to Ecology, Psychology and popular Science,
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What sociologist argues there are two common themes that characterise the new age?
Heelas,
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What are the two common themes that characterise the new age?
1) They look inside themselves rather than external places e.g. churches to find spirituality, 2)They reject any spiritual authority e.g. sacred text, instead valuing personal experiences to discover truths within,
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What are millenarian movements?
A set of religious beliefs that the turn of the century will cause supernatural intervention in their lives,
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What do millenarian movements believe about Christ and the end of the world?
They believe Christ will live again on the world for a thousand years before the day of judgement and the end of the world,
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What do they believe will be created on Earth at the end of the world?
A heaven on earth that is free from death, pain and sin,
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Describe the life span of these movements and why?
-Often short-lived, -As they predicted salvation through a cataclysmic event that would occur at the turn of the century that didn't materialise,
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What are the general sizes of Churches as an organisation?

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Card 3

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E.g. how many members does the Anglican Church have worldwide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the scope of Churches?

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Card 5

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Are churches inclusive or exclusive?

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