LT2-Primary quantitative survey measures of crime

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 17-01-16 21:08
What are the two types of primary quantitative survey measures of crime?
-Self-report surveys, -Victim surveys
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What are self-report surveys and what form do they take?
Confidential surveys requiring respondents to admit to offences they have committed. They take the form of a self-completion questionnaire.
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For advantages of self report studies, what do they call into question the accuracy of and an example why?
-Official Crime Statistics, -OCS show a working class to middle class ratio of 5:1 whereas SRS indicate a 1.5:1 ratio.
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Therefore, SRS help reveal what and the advantage of this?
They help reveal the extent of the 'dark figure' of crime and provide a more valid picture of crime,
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What can statistics from SRS be used for?
It is possible to use the statistics to test sociological explanations of crime,
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For example, they highlight the limitations of what and why due to what SRS show?
For example, they highlight the limitation of functionalist explantions which assume crime is mainly a working class and male problem. This is because SRS show offending to be also common amongst middle class people,
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What is the last advantage of SRS as they give insight into what?
They give insights into the motivations and causes of crime,
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Why do SRS give insight into the motivation and causes fo crime due to the form of SRS?
As they allow researchers to ask questions about motives for and attitudes to offending as well as about the offences themselves,
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What is a disadvantage of self report studies based on the participant?
Participants may not tell the truth, thus lowering the validity of the findings.
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What might some respondents not admit to offences?
Some respondents may not admit to offences as they do not trust the researcher ot feel shame, others may exaggerate their offending to gain status or to look 'tough'
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What have independent tests shown to support this?
They have shown that around 20% of participants lie in self-report studies.
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What is the result of self report studies being not representative?
They are difficult to generalise from,
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Why are self-report studies not representative?
As surveys are often done on juveniles. As a consequence, little information exists on adult self reported crime,
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Give some examples of adult self reported crime that isn't interviewed in SRS?
Such as domestic violence, child abuse and fraud,
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What self-report studies have been criticised for what?
-Home Office household self-report studies have been criticised for omitting groups who may be regarded as 'higher-rate offenders'
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For the last disadvantage of SRS, some self report studies have been criticised for what?
For measuring 'tivial' deviant acts,
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Give an example self report study which measured trivial deviant acts such as what?
-Campbell's survey. -Such as dropping litter,
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However, what do such surveys suggest about crime and the disadvantage of this?
They overestimate law breaking,-This makes comparisons with official statistics invalid as they measure serious crime,
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What do victim surveys ask?
Victim surveys involve asking individuals about their experiences of crime, their fears of crime and their views on the criminal justice system.
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What are the two main types of victim surveys and an example for each?
-Local (Islington Crime Survey) -National (BCS)
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For advantages of VS, what do they call into question the accuracy of and why?
-OCS, -As they highlight high levels of unreported and unrecorded crime.
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Give an example of this unreported crime and unrecorded crime with statistics?
In 2008, the BCS revealed that only 42% of crimes were reported by victims and of those only 75% were recorded by the police,
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Therefore, what do victim surveys reveal?
The extent of the 'dark figure' of crime,
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What do BCS estimate the 'dark figure' of crime to be?
At least 5 million
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For another advantage, what vital information so victim surveys provide?
Vital information about social patterns of victimisation and fear of crime,
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Give an example about social patterns of victimisation from the BCS?
The BCS have relvealed that inner city residents, ethnic minorities and low income households are more likely to be victims of crime,
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Give an example about fear of crime from the BCS?
They show that ethnic minorities and pensioners have a greater worry/fear of crime.
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What is an advantage of national victim surveys such as what?
-They are high in reliability, -Such as BCS,
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Give statistics to show the reliability of BCS?
BCS are carried out annually with a sample size of 40,000 and has a response rate of 75%.
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Are the findings each year consistent? Give an example statistic?
-The findings produced each year are often consistent, -E.g. levels of reporting each year are around 42%
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For disadvantages of VS, give 5 reasons why findings not be totally valid or accurate?
As victims may forget relevant incidents, may not trust the researcher to maintain confidentiallity, make offences up, be unaware they are a victim and may conceal crimes,
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Give an example of two examples of crime that may be concealed and why?
-Domestic abuse, -Child abuse, -Due to guilt, fear or embarrasment,
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What are victim surveys difficult to make comparisons to?
Official Crime Statistics,
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Why are are VS hard to compare with OCS?
As victim surveys interview households,
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Therefore, what kind of crimes do they neglect?
They neglect crimes such as fraud and shoplifting experienced by businesses and measured by OCS,
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For the last disadvantage, what is the problem of victim surveys?
They are problems of generalising,
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Give an example of generalisation in early BCS?
The early BCS excluded people under the age of 16.
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Why is it difficult to generalise from the findings of local victim surveys?
This is because the sampling is geographically focused on one area.
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On the other hand, what do national surveys conceal and an example?
They conceal local variations, -For example, very high levels of crime in certain areas of Nottingham,
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To conclude, what although SRS/VS have their own problems of what?
Have their own problems of validity, such as participants not telling the truth,
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Why as SRS/VS invaluable?
They are invaluable quantitative tools for exposing the limitations of OCS,
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What do they reveal about OCS?
They reveal that OCS underestimate crime and that there is a significant dark figure of unrecorded crime,
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Therefore, what are SRS/VS as a research method and their advantage?
-They are therefore invaluable corrective research methods to OCS, possibly painting a more valid picture of crime and deviance in society
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are self-report surveys and what form do they take?

Back

Confidential surveys requiring respondents to admit to offences they have committed. They take the form of a self-completion questionnaire.

Card 3

Front

For advantages of self report studies, what do they call into question the accuracy of and an example why?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Therefore, SRS help reveal what and the advantage of this?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What can statistics from SRS be used for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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