LT15 Crime and Deviance-Age and Crime

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  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 04-02-16 13:59
For key assumptions, what do OCS and BCS suggest that most crime is committed by who?
By young people,
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What percent of people convicted are aged 21 or under?
50%
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What is the peak age for crime of males and females?
Males- 18, Females- 14
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What is the correlation between youth, class and gender about who commits crime?
Young, working class and males are much more likely than females or middle class males to commit crime,
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For example, what percent of how many offenders in the 2011 London Riots were below 21?
-92% of the first 500 offenders in the 2011 London riots were young,
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While most young people will break the law at some time, what kind of offences do they commit?
The kinds of offences they commit are usually fairly trivial, opportunisitc, short-lived and isolated incidents,
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While most young people will break the law at some time, what are the crimes often related to and example?
They are also often peer group related e.g.Under-age drinking,
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What are the 6 reasons for young people committing crime?
-Status frustration and weakened social bond, -Drift, -Peer group status, -Edgework, -Masculinity, -Labelling,
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For status frustration, what sociologist argues that young offenders are motivated by status frustration?
Cohen
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What is the definition of status frustration?
Being annoyed with society because they are unable to achieve mainstream goals legitimately,
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WHy do young offenders experience status frustration and examples?
Due to blocked opportunities, -E.g.obtaining poor qualifications because fo material and cultural deprivation,
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What do some working class youths reject because of the status frustration they feel?
Mainstream norms and values,
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What do they replace the mainstream norms and values with?
An alternative delinquent subcultural norms and values,
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What type of crime do young offenders place a high value on?
A high value is placed on negativistic (non-money making) delinquent acts,
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What do these delinquent subcultures gain for working class offenders?
They alternatively provide a means of gaining status and striking back at an unequal society,
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Who supports Cohen's theory and what did he find?
Morrison- He found that the underclass are faced with blocked opportunities because of their position in the social structure. Crime is then committed because of group feelings of resentment and revenge,
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Who has questioned Cohen's theory and what did he find?
Miller- Argues that deviant subcultures don't develop as a reaction to anomie, instead they emerge out of working class culture that values foals such as 'toughness' and 'excitement'.
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For weakened social bond, what are these?
Individuals' bonds to society and control that helps prevent crime are weakened,
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Give an example of the effect of these weakened social bonds that can lead to crime?
As there is a lack of social integration through the family, school and workplace, so the control that helps prevent crime is weakened,
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What can weakened these social bonds and why?
-Status frustration, -As they are temporarily displaced by the peer group,
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For drift as a link between age and crime, what sociologist argued this?
Matza
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Why are people in a state of 'drift'?
As the period of status frustration weakened young people's sense of identity,
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In the period of 'drift' what does Matza argue makes young people vulnerable to occassional criminal acts?
The peer group which can provide a sense of identity, excitement and status,
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Does the period of status frustration begin to disappear? If so why does it begin to disappear?
As people get older and the young begin to establish a clearly defined adult status e.g. marriage and children,
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What happens to the peer group?
The peer group subsequently diminishes
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What socologist explaned a link between peer group status/focal concerns and age?
Miller
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What did Miller suggest about why lower working class young males are more likely to engage in delinquency than females or middle class males?
Because their subculture has a number of focal concerns or characteristics, which carry with them the risk of law breaking,
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Give six focal concerns/ characteristics of working class young male subcultures?
1)Toughness and Masculinity, 2)Smartness, 3)Excitement and thrills, 4)Fatalism 5)Autonomy and freedom, 6)Trouble
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Give an example for smartness as a focal concern of young working class male subcultures?
Having street cred by looking cool,
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Give an example for fatalism as a focal concern?
A sense they can do little about their lives, so they need to make the best of it while they can,
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Give an example for autonomy and freedom as a focal concern?
They won't be pushed around by anyone E.g. police or teachers,
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Give an example for trouble as a focal concern?
An acceptance that life involves violence and fights
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Why does Miller suggest these concerns are more likely to become exaggerated in the young?
As they seek to achieve peer group status,
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Who has questionned Miller's theory and why?
-Box, -Suggests that Miller's focal concerns could equally apply to makes across the class structure.
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Who has questionned subcultural theories as a whole?
Marxists
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How do Marxists view OCS and therefore don't accept what?
They don't accept OCS, -Therefore they don't accept that the young, working class are most likely to commit crime,
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What do they argue causes young people to commit crime instead of a subcultures and why?
Criminogenic capitalism, -As capitalism causes both the young and old, working and middle classes to commit crime.
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For edgework, what sociologists suggest much youthful criminal activity is motivated by edgework?
Katz and Lyng
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What is edgework?
The pleasures of thrill seeking and risk taking,
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Who is most likely to commit crime due to edgework?
Young males from all social classes (as well as young females) to commit crime,
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The what generated by the excitment and adrenaline of crime such as shoplifting and vandalism is more important than what?
-'Buzz', -More important than any worry about the risk of being caught or need for the items that have been stolen,
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What status can be gained through these activities?
A peer group status
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What two things do peer groups offer for deviancy acts?
1)Offer support and encouragement for the activities, -Group involvement increases the chances of getting away with the crime,
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Who has theoretically criticised Katz and Lyng and why?
Right realists- Argue that by focusing on the thrill of crime, the individual and societal causes of crime are ignored such as biosocial factors, the underclass and lienncy of the criminal justice system on the young,
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For masculinity, what sociologist argues there is a link between masculinity and crime and what is this link?
-Messerschmidt, -Crime is a way for young males to achieve and express their masculinity in a postmodern world,
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What type of masculinity do white working class youths demonstrate and where? Give some examples?
Oppositional masculinity in and out of school such as toughness, sexism and anti-school,
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For black working class youths, how do they express their masculinity?
Engage in gang violence to express violence,
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For black working class youths, how do they achieve what type of masculinity?
-Subordinated masculinity, -They turn to street robbery,
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For white-middle class youths, what type of masculinity do they achieve in school?
Accommodating/conformist masculinity,
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For white middle class youths, what type of masculinity do they achieve outside of school and an example?
Oppositional outside e.g. drinking and vandalism,
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For white middle class youths, what type of masculinity may they gain if they turn to white collar crime?
Hegemonic (dominant) masculinity,
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Who has criticised Messerschmidt's masculinity theory and why?
-Left realists, -Argue that by focusing on masculinity, the underlying structural causes of male crime are ignored- marginalisation, relative deprivation and subcultures.
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For labelling theorists, how do they view OCS?
They see OCS as shaped by selective law enforcement,
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How are the police likely to label young people due to factors such as status frustration and weakened social bonds? What does this labelling lead to in terms of the police?
They are more likely to see them as a source of problems, and this stereotype involves them spending more time observing and checking youths,
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What is the result of this sterotype based on OCS?
More young people get caught, become defined as an offender and appear in statistics,
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What sociologist argues the labelling of a deviant depends on what?
-Becker, -It depends on who has committed and observed the criminal act, when and where the act was committed and negotiations that take place between the various 'social groups' involved,
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Who does Becker argue is more likely to be labelled than who?
Powerless groups (including the young) are more likely to be labelled than powerful groups,
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Who does Becker argue is more likely to be labelled out of the classes and why?
Working class youths are more likely to be convicted as many middle class youths negotiate their way out of charges
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Give an example of how middle class youths can negotiate their way out of charges?
As they don't fit the typical picture of a deviant and and their parents are able to convince the criminal system of their remorse, thus won't be included in statistics,
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What status do the labelled gain and the definition?
-Master status, -This status dominates and shapes how others see the individual (they become stigmatised),
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What is set into motion after being labelled and what does this mean?
A self fulfilling prophecy is set in motion e.g. they live up to their label,
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What does Becker suggest young deviants do after being labelled?
They may join or form deviant subcultures where their activities can be justified and supported.
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Why can this lead to a career in deviance?
AS deviance becomes more frequent and often expanded into new areas,
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Who has given labelling theorists empirical support and why?
Young- Found that once young hippies in Notting Hill had been labelled for their primary deviance, they saw themselves as outsiders and developed a deviant subculture that involed wearing 'way out' clothes and longer hair and drug taking central.
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What did Young argue this label led to?
It led increased police attentions and to a self fulfilling prophecy
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Who has criticised labelling theorists empirically and how do they view labelling theory?
Fuller, -Labelling theory too deterministic,
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What empirical evidence did labelling theorists find to question labelling theories?
Negative teacher labelling amongst year 11 black girls but there was little evidence of self-fulfilling prophecues. The non-conformist girls rejected the label and used it as a motivator to achieve educational success.
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What percent of people convicted are aged 21 or under?

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50%

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What is the peak age for crime of males and females?

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Card 4

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What is the correlation between youth, class and gender about who commits crime?

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For example, what percent of how many offenders in the 2011 London Riots were below 21?

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