LT11- Globalisation and crime, green crime and state crimes

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  • Created on: 21-02-16 12:10
What do we mean when we say crime has become globalised?
It has become interconnected across national borders,
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What sociologist argues the global crime economy is worth over how much?
-Castells, -£1 trillion per year,
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Give 5 examples of global crimes?
-Human trafficking, -Drugs trade, -Cyber-crime, -Green crime, -International terrorism
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Who are most likely to be trafficked and why?
-Women and children, -Often linked to prostitution,
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For the drugs trade, how much is this estimated to generate?
$400billion each year,
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Give two examples of cyber-crime?
-Identity theft, -Child ***********,
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What are green crimes and an example?
-Damage to the environment, -E.g. illegal dumping of hazardous wastes,
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For international terrorism, how are ideological links made and an example terrorist group?
-Ideological links made via the internet and other ICT, -Al Qaeda,
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For evaluation, what is the negative of this research based on its ease to research?
Research is very difficult in these areas so there are very few 'hard' facts on global crimes,
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What is the definition of global risk consciousness?
The globalisation of crime has created new fears, insecurities and 'risk consciousness', where risk is seen as global rather than local,
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Give an example of global risk consciousness migrants and asylum seekers?
Conerns and anxieties about crime and disorder by migrant workers and asylum seekers,
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How is much risk consciousness created?
It is 'artificially' created by moral panics caused by the media
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Give an example of the media and immigrants? What crime does this give rise to?
-Media often stereotype immigrants as 'terrorists or scroungers flooding the country'. -Hate crimes against immigrants,
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What two policies in countries have increased due to risk consciousness?
-Social control by countries, -International co-operation and control
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Give an example of an increase in social control and immigrants?
Many European countries with land borders have fences, CCTV and thermal imaging to prevent illegal crossings,
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Give an example of an increase in international co-operation?
'Wars' on terror and drugs, especially since 9/11,
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For the causes of the growth in global crime, what cause has created crimes such as cyber-crimes?
Spread of new ICT e.g. internet, mobiles,
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What cause has created green harms such as air pollution?
Cheaper air travel
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What cause keeps prostitution, drugs and film downloads in business?
Demand- Large demand from the rich West,
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What cause means poorer nations are willing commit global crimes to escape poverty and an example?
-Supply, E.g.Columbia willing to grow drugs- Cocaine outsells all of Columbia's other exports combined,
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What is another cause of crime based on policing?
They are difficult to police as it crosses national boundaries.
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What problems can crimes crossing national borders create?
It creates problems identifying where has crime has been committed and who is responsible for policing it.
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Give an example of a crime which is very diffiuclt to police and why?
Cyber-crime- Involve anonymous or virtual identities and are therefore difficult to combat,
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What is another cause for the growth in global crimes due to terrorists?
Growth of international terrorism- terrorist groups commit crimes such as drug and sex trafficking and money laundering to fund terrorist training,
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For evaluation, what do the explanations lack?
They lack theoretical explanatory power,
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What sociologist uses what theory approach to theorise the causes of global crime?
-Taylor, -Neo-Marxist conflict approach,
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What does Taylot argue a globalised capitlaist economy has created?
-Greater inequality and rising crime,
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To explain crimes of the powerless, what three insecurities have transnational corporations created in the West by doing what?
-Created job insecurities, -unemployment and poverty, -By switching manufacturing to low wage countries (de-industrialisation),
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Where have corresponding cuts been made to?
Welfare,
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This has led what social groups to faced what? What do they turn to?
-Working class, black, -Faced with widening inequality, -Turn to crime,
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Where has de-industrialisation led to the growth of drug gangs?
L.A.
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How many members are there estimated to be in drug gangs?
15,000 members,
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How many gang related killings are there?
At least one a day,
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For crimes of the powerful, the deregulation of what has led to increase opportunities for what?
-Deregulation of financial markets, -Increased opportunity for insider trading and the movement of funds around to world to avoid taxation,
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Give an example of a transnational organisation and how much does it pay for what kind of subsidies?
-European Union, -Pays out $7 billion in fraudulent claims for subsidies each year,
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Give an example of new patterns of illegal working?
-Working for below the minimum wage, -Breaking health and safety laws,
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For an evaluation of Taylor, give a positive due to the links she makes?
She links global trends in the capitalist economy to changes in the extent and nature of crime,
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However, what does Taylor not adequately explain?
How the changes above make people behave in criminal ways- not all people who have insecure jobs turn to crime,
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What sociologist looked into the 'McMafia' and what is it?
Glenny, -Organisations in former communist countries,
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What two things did Glenny argue gave rise to the McMafia?
-The fall of communism in Russia and Eastern Europe, -The deregulation of the world financial markets,
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What is the name of former communist leaders who became the capitalist class and how did they make money?
-Oligarchs, -Made money by buying oil, gas, diamonds etc. at old communist prices and selling them for huge profits on deregulated world financial markets,
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For patterns of criminal organisation, what has led to new criminal opportunities at local levels?
Globalisation and de-industrialisation,
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What sociologists have given what name to local crime organisations?
-Hobbs and Dunningham, -'Glocal' organisation,
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What is the definition of 'glocal' crime?
Locally based with flexbile opportunistic criminals having global connections,
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What do Hobbs and Dunningham claim about local crime?
They claim that although new criminal organisations have international links, especially with the drugs trade, crime is still rooted in a local context,
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Therefore, what does this suggest about the structure of crime?
-Less large scale and hierarchal and more 'glocal'
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Give an example of 'glocal' drug crime?
Drug dealing crime is influenced by suppliers from countries such as Columbia, but the form/pattern of dealing is shaped by local conditions/ networks,
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However, for evaluation, what do Hobbs and Dunningham exaggerate and how?
-Exaggerate change, -Local criminal networks have always existed and the power and control of larger mafia style organisations still dominate the criminal underworld,
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For the globalisation of green crime, threats to the ecosystem are now what?
Global and not just local,
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For example, illegal industrial pollution in one country can cause what elsewhere?
-Acid rain in another, destroying forests etc,
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Give two examples of disasters which caused damage to eco-systems?
-The Chernobyl disaster, -Bhopal gas disaster,
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Where was Chernobyl and what threat/ damage did it create?
-Ukraine, -It spread radioactive waste over thousands of miles,
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Where was the Bhopal gas disaster and what damage did it lead to?
-India, -Thousands of deaths,
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What sociologist claims late modern society has created what risks?
-Beck, -'Global manufactured risks'
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Give an example fo a 'global manufactured risk'?
CO2 emissions from industry have created global warming and climate change,
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FOor the question are green crimes illegal, what criminology hasn't focused on green crimes and why?
-Traditional criminology, -As often no laws have been broken,
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However, what is a problem with this approach?
it too readily accepts offical definition of what environmental problems and crimes are,
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What approach focuses on harms to the environment rathr than criminal law and an example sociologist?
-Green Criminology, -White
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Give one reason why they focus on harms to the environment due to legality?
As some of the worst crimes are not illegal,
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What is another reason due to different laws?
Different countries have different laws on what counts as environmental crime,
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What is the last reason based on defining what counts as unacceptable environmental harm?
Powerful groups, countries and transnational corporations are able to define in their own interests what counts as unacceptable environmental harm.
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What do they usually put before environmental harm?
Economic growth so they tend to be 'anthropocentric'.
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How does Green criminology see both who as liable to what, by what?
Sees both humans and the environment, -As liable to expolitation by global capitalism
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What two categories did what sociologist from Green criminoloy split green crime into?
-South, -Primary green crimes and secondary green crimes,
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What is the definition of a primary green crime?
Crimes that result directly from the destruction of the earth's resources,
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Give four examples of primary green crimes?
-Air pollution, -Deforestation, -Species decline and animal rights, -Water pollution
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What is air pollution and what negative effect does this have on the environment?
-Burning the fossil fuels by governments, business and the publis, -Creates global warming
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How much carbon is added into the atmosphere?
3 billion tonnes each year,
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What is deforestation and why does this occur?
Forests such as the amazon are destroyed by the governments, cattle ranchers and logging companies
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For species decline and animal rights, how many species a day are becoming extinct?
50 a day,
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What percent of earth's species live in the rainforests? Why are they under severe threat?
-95% of the Earth's species live in the rainforest, -
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Give an example of the expolitation of animal rights?
The trafficking of animals or animal parts,
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For water pollution, how many people die each year from drinking contaminated water?
25 million people,
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Marine pollution threatens what percent of the ocean reefs and what percent of its fish?
-58% of the world ocean reefs, -35% of its fish,
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Who is to blame for marine pollution?
Businesses thatdump toxic waste and government that discahrge untreated sewage into rivers and seas,
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What is South's definition of secondary green crimes?
Crimes that grows out of the breaking of rules aimed at preventing environmental disasters
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What are the two examples of secondary green crimes?
1) State violence against oppositional groups, -Hazardous waste and organised crime,
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Give an example of state violence against oppositional groups with Greenpeace and the French?
In 1985, the French secret police blew up the Greenpeace ship 'Rainbow Warrior' which was attempting to prevent a green crime of nucleur weapons testing,
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For hazardous waste and organised crime, why do companies dump waste and how?
-Due to high costs of safe waste disposal, -They employ people to dump toxic waste illegally,
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How many barrels of radioactive waste lie where dumped by who?
-28,500 tonnes, -On the seabed of the Channel Islands, -Dumped by UK authorities and corporations,
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Is illegal dumping a glboal crime?
Yes
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Why is hazardous waste often shiped to be processed in Third World countries?
As costs are lower ($2,500 vs $3 a ton), -health and safety laws are often non-existent,
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For evaluation, what is a positive of green criminology based on developing a global view?
By moving from legal definitions of crime, green criminology can develop a global view on environmental harm which recognises risks of environmental damage to both humans and animals,
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However, what is the problem with green criminology based on judgements?
-It is subjective, -By focusing on the harms rather than crimes it makes subjective value judgements on what is regarded as wrong or deviant.
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For State crimes, they are examples of what?
Crimes of the powerful.
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They are all forms of crime committed om behalf of who for what?
-On behalf of countries and governments, -In order to further their policies,
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What sociologist identifies four types of state crimes?
McLaughlin
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What are the four types of state crimes and an example for each?
1) Political crimes e.g. censorship, 2) Crimes by security and police forces e.g.genocide and torture 3) Economic crimes e.g. violation of health and safety laws 4)Social and cultural crimes e.g. institutional racism,
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What does the power of the state enable them to do?
It enables them to commit crimes on a large scale with widespread victimisation,
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Give an example of this in Cambodia?
In Cambodia between 1975 and 1978, the Khmer Rouge government of Pol Pot killed up to two million people
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The power of the state allows them to do what after crimes are committed?
-Escape punishment and conceal crimes,
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What crimes have Britain and America recently been found guilty of?
Crimes such as military use of torture in Iraq,
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The principle of what makes it difficult for organisations such as who to intervene against countries?
-The principle of national sovereignty, -Organisations such as the United Nations,
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For an evaluation, what is the negative of the scale of state crime explanations?
AS state crimes are often hidden/complex, there are very few hard facts on the extent of the problem,
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Who is has the power to make the law and how does this benefit them?
-The state, -It is able to avoid defining its own harmful actions as criminal,
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Give an example from Nazi Germany about lawfully allowing extermination?
-The state created laws permitting it to persecute Jews and sterilise disabled people against their will,
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The state control of what means it can persecute its enemies?
The criminal justice system,
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For human rights and state crime, what is the function of human rights and examples?
Human rights such as the right to vote and a fair trial protect the individual against the power of the state,
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What sociologist argues crime should be defined as what instead of an action than breaks laws?
-Schwendinger, -An action that breaks human rights,
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Give two examples of crimes of staters denying individuals human rights?
-Those that inflict racism and sexism or exploitation on their citizens,
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For an evaluation of Schwendinger, what is the negative of his view?
It offers a subjective view on crime which is very value laden,
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What aspect of Schwendinger's argument does Cohen accept?
He accepts that violation of human rights such as genocide and torture are clearly crimes,
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However, what aspect does he criticise?
However, Cohen argues other acts, such as economic exploitation are not evidently criminal,
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What does Cohen argue about states' human right crimes?
He argues states conceal and legitimise their human rights crimes,
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What kind of rule denies committing human right abuses?
Dictatorships.
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What states legitimise their actions in more complex ways?
Democratic states,
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Give an example of this with the states reaction to a crime but why does it change?
-States often start with denial, -Human right organisations, victims and media show an event did happen,
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What do the states then claim?
They then claim it is not what ti looks like e.g. self defence,
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Lastly, what does the state justify?
The state justifies action to proptect national security
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How does Cohen argue states justify human right abuses?
In terms of techniques of neutralisation,
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What are the three examples of techniues of neutralisation?
-Denial of injury, -Denial of responsibility, -Appeal to higher loyalty,
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Give an example of denial of injury,
'They started it' , -'We are the real victims'.
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Give an example fo denying responsibility?
'I was only obeying orders', 'we are the real victims,'
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Give an example of appealing to higher loyalty?
Defence of the free world,
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For evaluation, what is a positive of Cohen's theories about similairity links?
He draws attention to the similarity between crimes of the powerful and powerless. This is because governments use the same types as justifications for crime as working class juveniles do for their crime.
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What sociologist provides what explanation as the social causes of state crimes?
-Kelman and Hamilton, -Argue individuals who commit state crimes are socialised into it,
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Kelman and Hailton explain crimes of obedience such as what with what three causes?
-My Lai Massacre in Vietnam, -Authorisation, -Routinisation, -Dehumanisation,
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What does authorisation mean as a cause of the crime?
Following the orders of those in authority,
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What does routinisation mean as a cause of crime?
Once the act is committed, it is seen as a routine that one can be detached from,
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What does dehumanisation mean as a cause of crime?
Enemies are presented as sub-human e.g. described as animals,
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For evaluation of Kalman and Hamilton's theories, what is a positive based what they improve?
They provide an improvement on explanations that state crimes are due to psychopathic tendenices. Instead, they locate such acts in terms of social factors,
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Card 2

Front

What sociologist argues the global crime economy is worth over how much?

Back

-Castells, -£1 trillion per year,

Card 3

Front

Give 5 examples of global crimes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who are most likely to be trafficked and why?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

For the drugs trade, how much is this estimated to generate?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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