Long Profile

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  • Created by: Helena26
  • Created on: 02-02-13 21:44
What are the characteristics of a river and its valley found in the upper course?
Vertical erosion, lakes, waterfalls, potholes, rapids and gorges.
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Where are overland flow found?
Overland flow is found in depressions making lakes. Eventually, the channel gets deeper and waterfalls become rapids.
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What are the characteristics of the middle course?
Characteristics include: lateral erosion, transportation, floodplain, meanders, truncated spurs, and river cliffs.
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In the middle course, the gradient of the river is what?
The gradient of the river is increasingly even and smooth, and the flood plain begins to develop.
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What are found in the lower course?
Transportation and deposition are found. The channel is large and features such as Deltas, levees, bluffs and meanders are found. The flood plain increases in size as meanders migrate downstream.
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Generally, erosion mainly occurs in what courses?
Generally, erosion mainly occurs in the upper and middle courses and is either vertical or lateral.
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Deposition mainly occurs in what courses?
deposition mainly occurs in the middle and lower reaches of the river.
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What are the four transportations?
Solution, Suspension, Saltation and Traction.
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What is solution?
Minerals are dissolved in water and carried along in solution.
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What is suspension?
Fine light material is carried along in the water.
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What is Saltation?
Small pebbles and stones are bounced along the river bed.
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What is traction?
Large boulders and rocks are rolled along the river bed.
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What are the Erosion Processes?
Hydraulic Action, Abrasion, Solution and Attrition.
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What is hydraulic action?
Where the sheer force of the water erodes the stones, bed and banks of the river
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What is abrasion?
This is when large pieces of bedload material wear away the river banks and bed.
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What is solution?
Where weak acids within the water react with the rocks and bed and bank of the river
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What is attrition?
This is when the bed load itself is eroded when sediment particles knock against the bed or each other and break, becoming more rounded and smaller.
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What do Hjulström curve graphs show?
The relationship between the size of particles (competence) and water velocity
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Sand is easily transported at what?
Sand is easily transported at lower velocities.
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What is needed to pick up material than to carry it in suspension?
More velocity is needed to pick up material than to carry it in suspension.
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In times of highest discharge, what increases?
In times of highest discharge, velocity increases, as does erosion.
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What is small? What does this mean?
The division between Transportation and deposition is small. This means that only a small decrease in velocity leads to sedimentation.
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What is the maximum size of material a river can transport?
Competence is the maximum size of material a river can transport.
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What is the total load actually transported?
Capacity is the total load actually transported.
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What are the three river loads?
Suspended sediment load, Bedload and Dissolved load.
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What is suspended sediment load?
This is carried with the body of the current. It can consist of suspended bed material, which is fine to medium sands, which have come from the riverbed. The material such as silts and clays is light and can be held in suspension.
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What is bedload?
Can be either exogenetic or endogenetic, and moves by sliding, saltating, or rolling. It is larger than suspended sediment load.
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What is dissolved load?
This is held in solution and can come from erosion, pollution, mineral springs and chemical weathering.
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What is Deposition?
This happens when the velocity of a river is reduced.
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What are the main factors of deposition?
1. Low rainfall reducing precipitation 2. A river entering the sea or a lake, reducing velocity. 3. Water becoming shallower. 4. Increase in load. 5. River overflows its banks, depositing material on the flood plain.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where are overland flow found?

Back

Overland flow is found in depressions making lakes. Eventually, the channel gets deeper and waterfalls become rapids.

Card 3

Front

What are the characteristics of the middle course?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

In the middle course, the gradient of the river is what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are found in the lower course?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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