Short-Term Memory, Long-Term Memory and Forgetting

Who studied the duration and capacity of LTM?
Bahrick in 1975
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What test did Bahrick use to test duration and capacity of LTM?
Yearbook picture and name test
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What were the findings of Bahricks research?
RECO GROUP: 90% 15 yr grad, 60% 47 yr grad. REC GROUP: 60% 7 yr grad, less than 20% 47 yr grad
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What did Back conclude about the duration and capacity of LTM?
LTM capacity ad duration are potentially unlimited and are for a lifetime
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What is an advantage of Bahricks research?
Natural setting, normal everyday task - high external validity and mundane realism
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What is a disadvantage of Bahricks research?
High external validity=loss of control. Researchers didn't consider whether people had met up since graduation, and didn't consider how often people view the yearbook, therefore extraneous variables decrease the reliability of the findings.
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Who studied coding of the LTM and STM?
Baddeley in 1966
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What test did Baddeley use to test coding of LTM and STM?
Acoustically and semantically similar and dissimilar word tests
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What were the findings of Baddeley's research into coding of the STM?
Acoustically similar words were recalled the worst at only 10% accurate recall
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What were the findings of Baddeley's research into coding of the LTM?
Semantically similar words were recalled the worst at 55% accurate recall
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What did Baddeley conclude about coding of the STM?
Codes acoustically as it was confused by acoustically similar words
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What did Baddeley conclude about coding of the LTM?
Codes semantically as it was confused by semantically similar words
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How can Baddeleys research into coding be criticised?
LTM codes acoustically as well, we recognise things such as police sirens - therefore doesn't provide the full extent of our LTM coding capabilities and so lacks internal validity
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What is an advantage of Baddeley's research into coding?
Lab experiment - high reliability and internal validity.
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What are the two types of LTM?
Procedural and Declarative
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What are the two types of Declarative memory?
Semantic and Episodic
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What is a semantic memory?
Facts and knowledge (e.g. MSM). It is a type of explicit memory. They usually start as episodic memories but progressively lose their association with particular events and only the knowledge remains
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What is an episodic memory?
Personal memories (e.g. birthday parties). Type of explicit memory. Usually including details of context and emotions associated with the event
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What is a procedural memory?
Memory of how to do things (e.g. using a knife and fork). Type of implicit memory, due to requiring repetition and practise, and due to being difficult to explain but is easy to perform. These procedural memories are automatic
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How did Rosenbaum support the working memory model?
KC had a motorcycle incident that resulted in episodic amnesia that included large bilateral hippocampal lesions. These caused him to lose most personal events but kept general knowledge. Shows semantic and episodic are separate processes
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What is the neuroimaging evidence that supports the working memory model?
Tulving got pts to perform meMory tasks whilst using a PET scan. Episodic and semantic memories were recalled from the prefrontal cortex. Supporting diffeRent types of LTM
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What are the three features of memory?
coding, duration and capacity
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What is meant by 'coding' of the memory?
Changing the format of information for use in memory
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What is meant by 'duration' of the memory?
Length of time information remains in memory
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What is meant by 'capacity' of the memory?
Amount of information that can be held in memory
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Who did research on the capacity of short-term memory?
Jacobs (1887)
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What test did Jacobs use to study the capacity of STM?
Digit Span Test
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What was Jacobs conclude is the capacity of STM?
He concluded that our STM has the capabilities to 'hold' 7+ / -2 (between 5 and 9) pieces of information
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Did Jacobs research have a high or low Ecological Validity, and why?
Low - participants would not be asked to do this on a daily basis
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Did Jacobs' research have a high or low Face Validity, and why?
High - because the findings are logical (more options of letters iin the alphabet to choose from whereas there is only 9 single digits numbers.
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Did Jacobs' research have a high or low Internal Validity, and why?
High - it shows what the aim is looking to find, good way of testing capacity of STM.
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Are Jacobs' finding reliable or unreliable, and why?
Reliable - research can be repeated, it was in a controlled environment with controlled variables
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Did Jacobs' research have a high or low Temporal Validity, and why?
Low - research was carrieed out in 1887, and therefore due to improvements (such as new technologies), the findings may differ now today.
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What is a problem with the way Jacobs' concluded his research?
'Pieces of information' - what is a piece? a paragraph? a word?
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How did Cowan criticise Jacobs' research?
Cowan - digit span test is influenced by LTM, because repeating a sequences improves recall, therefore Jacobs' research tests both memory stores - meaning it lacks validity and is not a 'true reflection'.
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What is an advantage of Jacobs' research?
Reliable - lab experiment, controlled variables.
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How did Baddeley criticise Jacobs' research?
Research shows reading aloud improves capacity of STM - reading aloud makes them more aware they are being assessed = demand characteristics makes them try harder to recall= questions (J) validity -tests capacity under pressure, not normal capacity.
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Who studied the duration of STM?
Peterson & Peterson in 1959
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What test did Peterson and Peterson use to study the duration of STM?
Trigram test
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What did Peterson & Peterson conclude to be the duration of STM?
STM has a limited duration when rehearsal is prevented. Info is lost due to trace decay. STM is different to LTM in terms of duration
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What were the findings of Jacobs' research into the capacity of STM?
The average digit span is 9.3 and the average letter span is 7.3
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What were the findings of Peterson & Petersons' research into the duration of STM?
The longer the interval delay, the less trigrams were correctly recalled. 80% were accurately recorded after 3 seconds, but less than 10% were accurately recalled after 18 seconds
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How did Murdock criticise Peterson & Petersons' research?
same but 3 3-letter unrelated words, or with a real 3 letter word. recall for the 3 words was similar, however recall of recognised word was remarkably resistant to decay=Number of chunks effect more than individual items- P not accurate measure STM
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How did Sebrechts criticise Peterson & Petersons' research?
Did same test with 3 nouns, when not asked to remember the words; recall dropped to 1% after 4 seconds , meaning P+P gave puts chance to prepare and intend, by telling them to remember- implies that P+P research is too simplistic
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Who came up with the WMM?
Baddeley and Hitch in 1974
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What is considered to be the most important component of the WMM?
Central executive; controls attention and is involved in problem solving and decision making. It also plans and synthesises information from STM and slave systems. It’s flexible and can process information from any modality
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What is the storage capacity of the central executive?
Limited storage - therefore can only attend to a certain number of things at one time
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What is the phonological loop?
Stores a limited number of speech-based-sounds. Made up of two components; phonological store and articulatory control system
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What does the phonological store and articulatory Control system do?
PS: (inner ear) allows acoustically coded info to be stored for a brief period. ACS: (inner voice) allows sub-vocal repetition of the info stored in the phonological store.
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What is the visuo-spatial sketchpad?
Stores visual and spatial information and can be thought of as an inner eye. It’s responsible for setting up and manipulating mental images
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What is the capacity of the visuo-spatial sketchpad?
Has a limited capacity, but the limit of the two systems are independent.
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Give an example of what the visuo-spatial Sketchpad is able to do?
Able to rehearse a set of digits in the phonological loop while simultaneously making decisions about the spatial layout of a set of letters in the visuo-spatial sketchpad.
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What was the WMM developed to challenge?
The concept a single unitary store for short term memories
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What is the WMM based upon the findings of?
The dual task study of the memory , this is suggesting that there are 4 separate components of our working memory (STM)
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What component did Baddeley later propose in 2000?
The episodic buffer
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What is the episodic buffer?
Integrating and manipulating material, binding together info from different sources into chunks and episodes, hence the term ‘episodic’. Recalls info from LTM and integrates it to STM when WMM requires it
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What is the capacity of the episodic buffer?
Limited capacity and depends heavily on executive processing
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What are weaknesses of the WMM?
Central executive is hard to quantify. Little research. Nobody knows the capacity limitations. Cannot be falsified. Richardson - problems specifying specific function
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What is the KF study by Shallice and Warrington that supports WMM?
KF hat motorcycle damage, could process visual info but not acoustic info in teh form of letters and numbers, but could process meaningful acoustic info (phone ringing). No LTM problems, only damaged phonological loop - supporting separate components
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How did Bunge et al support the existence of the 4 WMM components?
Used a MRI scanner to see which brain parts were active when ppts were doing single tasks and multiple tasks. Significantly more activity when doing multiple tasks, indicating an increased demand for attention when doing simultaneous tasks
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What are the two reasons for forgetting?
Retrieval failure and Interference theory
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What is the interference theory?
Memory can be disrupted by what is learned in the future and what has previously been learned. I.e. forgetting is caused by 2 memories competeing
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What are the two types of interference?
Proactive and retroactive
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What is proactive interference?
When old information interferes with new information, e.g. mixing old phone number with new
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What is retroactive interference?
When new information interferes with old information, e.g. being asked to recall old home address and giving new one
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How did Waugh & Norman evaluate the interference theory?
Showed ppts 16 digits, they were then shown one digit from the list, which they called the "probe", and were asked what number came before probe. Found that less digits there are after the probe, more likely they are to remember what came before.
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What did Waugh & Normans study conclude about interference theory?
Demonstrated retroactive interference; if the probe occurred in the sequence then the 'new' digits after increased the chance of interference and visa versa.
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What is retrieval failure?
difficulties in recall due to the absence of the correct retrieval cues
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What is context dependent failure?
when the environment cues present at encoding are absent at time of recall.
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what is state dependent failure?
when the physiological or psychological cues present at encoding are absent at the time of recall
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What did Tulving say about cue dependent failure?
cant access the memory until the correct cue is used. Encoding a new memory also stored info that occurred around it.
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What is Tulvings 'Encoding Specificity Principle' and how can it be used to evaluate the retrieval failure explanation for forgetting?
the greater the similarity between the coding event and the retrieval event, the greater the likelihood of recalling the original memory- adds external validity to the retrieval failure explanation for forgetting
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What is a memory trace?
when info is laid down and retained in a store as a result of the original perception of an event
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what is a retrieval clue?
when info present in the individual cognitive environment at the time of retrieval that matches the time of recall
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How did Darley support state dependent failure?
Found that ppts who hid money whilst high on weed were less able to recall where the money was, when compared to when they were high again. TST support for state dependent failure as an explanation of forgetting
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How did Abernethy study context dependent failure?
psych students given tests before a 4 week course. They were split: (A) same room & diff lecturer, (B) diff room & diff lecturer, (C) diff room & same lecturer, (D) same room, same lecturer. GROUP D DID BEST
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How can you evaluate interference theory?
Baddeley & Hitch, Postman, Henck & Schmit
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How does Carter & Cassaday's study support retrieval failure as an explanation for forgetting?
Findings demonstarted that mismatching physiological states resulted in higher retrieval failure
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How does Baddeley criticise Tulvings Encoding Specificity Principle?
Says that context effects are not strong. He says you would need to change environments from ladn to underwater, purely changing rooms is unlikely to be different; in reference to context, to result in much forgetting. ESP- not a clear explanation
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What test did Bahrick use to test duration and capacity of LTM?


Yearbook picture and name test

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What were the findings of Bahricks research?


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What did Back conclude about the duration and capacity of LTM?


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What is an advantage of Bahricks research?


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