Long answer biology revision questions

What is conjugation?
When one bacterial cell transfers DNA to another bacterial cell
1 of 18
Describe the steps of conjugation? step 1+ step 2
1. One cell produces a thin projection that meets another cell and forms a thin conjugation tube between the 2 cells. 2. The donor cell replicates one of its plasmid
2 of 18
Describe the steps of conjugation? step 3, 4 + 5
3. The plasmid is broken to make it linear before it passes along the tube into the recipient cell 4. A portion of the donors DNA is transferred 5.The recipient cell acquires new characteristics from the donor cell
3 of 18
What are the 3 requirements needed for semi conservative replication to take place?
- The 4 types of nucleotide, each with their bases must be present -Both strands of the DNA molecule must act as a template for the attachment of these nucleotides -The enzyme DNA polymerase is needed to catalyse the reaction
4 of 18
What is the 4th requirement needed for semi conservative replication to take place?
- A source of chemical energy is required to drive the process
5 of 18
Describe the process of semi conservative replication? steps 1,2 +3
1.The enzyme DNA helicase breaks the hydrogen bonds linking the base pairs of DNA 2.As a result the double helix separates into its 2 strands + unwinds 3.Each exposed polynucleotide acts as a template to which complementary nucleotides are attracted
6 of 18
Describe the process of semi conservative replication? Steps 4+5
4.Energy is used to activate these nucleotides 5.The activated nucleotides are joined together by the enzyme DNA polymerase to form the missing polynucleotide strand on each of the 2 original polynucleotide strands of DNA
7 of 18
Describe the process of semi conservative replication? step 6
6. Each of the new DNA molecules contain one of the original DNA strands. ie. half the original DNA has been saved + built into each of the new DNA molecules
8 of 18
Describe the founder effect?
A few individuals colonise a new region. Few individuals will carry a small fraction of the alleles of the population. These alleles may not be representative. The new population of colonisers will show less GD than population from which they came.
9 of 18
Describe genetic bottlenecks?
Event occurs which reduces number of population. Few survivors will possess smaller variety of alleles. As individuals breed, the genetic diversity of the new population will remain restricted.
10 of 18
Describe the process of immunological comparisons of proteins? step 1+2
1.Serum albumin from species A is injected into species B. 2.Species B produces antibodies specific to all the antigen sites on the albumin from species A.
11 of 18
Describe the process of immunological comparisons of proteins? steps 3+4
3.Serum is extracted from species B;this serum contains antibodies specific to the antigens on the albumin from species A. 4.Serum from species B is mixed with serum from the blood of a third species C.
12 of 18
Describe the process of immunological comparisons of proteins? steps 5,6 + 7
5.The antibodies respond to their corresponding antigens on the albumin in the serum of species C. 6.The response is the formation of a precipitate 7.The grater the number of similar antigens,the more precipitate is formed + the more closely related
13 of 18
Describe ultrafiltration? steps 1+2
1.Higher hydrostatic pressure in blood than tissue fluid due to heart pumping, elastic recoil and blood entering narrower tube. 2.Forces small molecules through capillary walls + into tissue fluid.
14 of 18
Describe ultrafiltration? step 3
3. Large molecules (proteins) and blood cells too large to leave and stay in plasma
15 of 18
Describe reabsorption? steps 1,2 + 3
1. Lower hydrostatic pressure in blood than tissue fluid due to ultrafiltration and blood entering wider tube. 2.Ultrafiltration slows down. 3.Proteins in blood create more negative water potential in blood than tissue fluid.
16 of 18
Describe reabsorption? step 5 + 6
5.Water moves from tissue fluid into blood by osmosis. 6.small molecules into blood through diffusion
17 of 18
Describe the formation of lymph stage?
1. Tissue fluid that does not enter blood enters lymph capillary. 2.This makes the fluid lymph. 3.Lymph capillaries join to make lymph vessels. 4.Lymph vessels return lymph to blood via ducts near the heart
18 of 18

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe the steps of conjugation? step 1+ step 2

Back

1. One cell produces a thin projection that meets another cell and forms a thin conjugation tube between the 2 cells. 2. The donor cell replicates one of its plasmid

Card 3

Front

Describe the steps of conjugation? step 3, 4 + 5

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the 3 requirements needed for semi conservative replication to take place?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the 4th requirement needed for semi conservative replication to take place?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Long answer biology questions resources »