Loftus and Palmer PY2

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  • Created by: bananaaar
  • Created on: 31-03-14 17:34
Loftus Legal Context 1?
In 1960's people were worried about miscarriages of justice due to witness identification. Do people tell the 'truth the whole truth and nothin g but the truth' or are they lead by leading questions.
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Legal Context Continued?
Buss also Aimed to test whether inaccuracies would occur particularly as past research with air force personnel shows estimation of speed is particularly difficult (Marshall 1969)
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Loftus Academic Context?
Bartlett asked ops to retell an unfamiliar story called 'war of the ghosts'. He found that ops tended to reconstruct the story using normalisation and rationalisation as their memories were altered by their schemas of words like 'canoe'...
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Academic context link?
As lofts suspected recall of events would be altered by their schemas of words such as 'smashed'.
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Aims and Context 3?
Carmichael - showed that verbal labels of objects such as 'curtain will shape the way a memory of a drawng is stored and recalled. This fits in with Loftus' notion of reconstructive memory and was something they were aiming to test.
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Loftus aim 1?
To find out the effect on leading questions (altering one word) would have on estimation of speed.
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Loftus aim 2?
To find out if a leading question just alters your response, or if it actually changes your memory of the event (after 1 week).
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Loftus research method?
Two controlled laboratory experiments.
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Loftus' sample for experiment 1?
Consisted of 45 students selected using opportunist sampling
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Loftus' sample for experiment 2?
150 students selected using opportunist sampling.
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Experiment 1 research involved? 1
Dividing ops into 5 groups of 9 pps to watch 7 short films from the Evergreen Safety Council and Seattle safety department (5-30 secs) of traffic accidents.
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Experiment 1 research involved? 2
Giving the pps a questionnaire that first asked them to 'give an account of the accident you have just seen'
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Experiment 1 research involved? 3
Asking specific questions including a critical question about the speed of the cars in the film.
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What was the critical question?
"How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?'
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Experiment 1 research involved? 4
Replacing the word 'hit' with 'smashed' 'collided', 'bumped' and 'contacted' for the 4 other groups.
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Experiment 2 research involved? 1
Showing 3 groups a 1 minute film of a multiple crash (no broken glass involved) following a similar procedure to experiment 1.
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Experiment 2 research involved? 2
Asking 50 pps 'How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?'
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Experiment 2 research involved? 3
Asking 50 pps 'how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?'
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Experiment 2 research involved? 4
Not asking the control group about speed in the initial questionnaire.
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Experiment 2 research involved? 5
Asking all pps a week later to fill in a further 10 questions that included 'Did you see any broken glass?'
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Experiment 2 research involved? 6
In both experiments the critical/leading question was buried in questionnaires and randomised in position.
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Ethical issues addressed?
Loftus addresses some ethical issues by making films of accidents only a few seconds long e.g. in exp 2, the crash lasted 4 seconds, to reduce potential harm.
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Experiment 1 research involved? 5
There was a different order of films for all groups in experiment 1
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Loftus found in experiment 1 A
Pps mean estimates of the mph depended on which 5 words were in their critical question.
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Verb smashed speed?
40.8 mph.
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Verb collided speed
39.3
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Verb Bumped speed?
38.1
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Verb Hit speed?
34.0
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Verb Contacted speed?
31.8
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Loftus concluded for experiment 1? 1
People are not good at estimating speed of vehicles (actual speed 20, mean estimate 37.7. Whereas actual speed 30, mean estimate 36.2.
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Loftus concluded for experiment 1? 2
The form of a question (in this case changes in a single word) can affect a witness' answer to that question.
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Loftus concluded for experiment 1? 3
This occurs for one of 2 reasons: 1. a pp's schema of each word affects the estimated speed if uncertain (response-bias). 2. The verb changes the pp's memory of the event.
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Loftus found in experiment 2? 1
Mean estimated speed for smashed was 10.5mph, but only 8mph for hit.
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Loftus found in experiment ? 2
When asked one week later if there had been any broken glass, responses were as follows for the 3 groups: smashed - 16 yes, hit - 7 yes, control - 6 yes. (out of 50 per group.)
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Loftus concluded in experiment 2? 1
The way a question is asked can enormously influence the answer given.
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Loftus concluded in experiment 2? 2
L and P concluded that leading questions actually alter the memory a person has of an event, rather than just their speed estimation.
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Loftus concluded for experiment 2? 3
2 kinds of information are integrated to create a memory; the original perception of the event, and external information supplied 'after the fact'
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Reliability?
Strong, can be repeated and retested as it was a lab experiment, had standardised procedure of the same verbs being changed. Also 2 studies checks reliability.
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External Validity
Weak as it was in artificial conditions (unrealistic way to witness a crash). However strong as questions are realistic to being a witness. However strong on internal validity as only verb was changed so aims were tested.
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Sampling?
Problematic - strong sample size of 195 pp's in total, but as opportunist sample, there was age and culture bias as all were from a school. Also young people are inexperienced drivers so may not be representative of population.
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Data?
Problematic - lots of quantitative - e.g. mean estimated speed for smashed 40.8, but no qualitative data to add depth to conclusions so only assumptions could have been made.
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Ethics
Strong - no deception, harm was unlikely as clips were from road safety awareness course provided by Evergreen Safety Council & Seattle safety dept. However pps were not debriefed so could have been deceived.
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Alternative evidence for Loftus?
Bartlett, Carmichael & Yuille and Cutshall.
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Alternative Evidence 1?
Supported by Bartlettas he found pps reconstructed war of ythe ghosts because their memories were altered by schemas. Supports Loftus as she found that ops' memories of were altered by schemas, e.g.g schema for smash suggested broken glass.
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Bartlett alternative evidence which was better?
Loftus was an improvement on Bartlett's it was carried out under a controlled lab experiment and there were two experiments thus was higher in reliability as it could be repeated/retested.
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Alternative Evidence 2?
Carmichael supports as he showed that verbal labels shapes the way a memory is stored and recalled. Supports Loftus as the 'after the fact' information altering pp's perception and memory, Loftus is better as she used all her data, so had less bias.
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Alternative Evidence 3?
Yuille and Cutshall challenges, as they interviewed 4 people after an armed robbery and included leading questions, yet witnesses gave accurate recall. Rejects Loftus as suggests that leading Q's don't always distort memory.
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Alternative Evidence 3 which was better?
Loftus was better as Yuille's study was based on a interview and is less scientific/reliable than a lab experiment. However Y and C could be explained by flashful memory (remember everything or nothing due to trauma) so was less of a challenge to L&P
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What is flashful memory?
After a traumatic event, someone will either remember everything or nothing due tot he emotions and trauma that went with the event.
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Card 2

Front

Legal Context Continued?

Back

Buss also Aimed to test whether inaccuracies would occur particularly as past research with air force personnel shows estimation of speed is particularly difficult (Marshall 1969)

Card 3

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Loftus Academic Context?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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Academic context link?

Back

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Card 5

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Aims and Context 3?

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